Making her Dream a Reality

(Mother of Moulana Muhammad ‘Umar Paalanpuri [rahimahumullah] –)

It had always been the aspiration and desire of the mother of Moulana Muhammad ‘Umar Paalanpuri (rahimahullah) that her son should become an ‘Aalim of Deen, and Allah Ta‘ala made this dream of her’s a reality.

Maryam Khaalah had once narrated the hadeeth to her which mentions that the parents of the haafiz of the Quraan Majeed will be honoured by being made to wear crowns of noor on the Day of Qiyaamah. Hearing this hadeeth, his mother began to weep and said to her son, “My son! I want you to learn the Quraan Majeed, and you must learn Saheeh Bukhaari as well!” Moulana (rahimahullah) asked, “What will happen to my school/secular education?” His mother replied, “That is not my concern – my only concern is that you acquire the knowledge of Deen!”

At the age of seven, Moulana (rahimahullah) enrolled into a school in Bombay. It was the following year, when he was eight years old, that his father passed away. Moulana (rahimahullah) remained in school for five years, until the year 1942, when he returned with his mother to spend the holiday in his hometown. While he was at home during the holiday, his mother began sending him to the local madrasah in which a very pious ‘Aalim, Moulana ‘Abdul Hafeez Jalaalpuri (rahimahullah), was teaching. Moulana ‘Abdul Hafeez (rahimahullah) showed him special attention, and under his tutelage, Moulana progressed tremendously, studying no less than fifty kitaabs in one year.

During the course of this year, Moulana ‘Abdul Hafeez (rahimahullah) needed to return to his hometown in the province of U.P., over a thousand kilometers away. He sent a message to Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother saying, “I want to take your son with me to my hometown so that his studies will not suffer (and I can continue to teach him).” Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother was determined to make her son an ‘Aalim, so she acquired a loan of fifty rupees due to her financial constraints, and sent him to study Deen.

When Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother initially took the decision to send him to madrasah to become an ‘Aalim, her relatives from Bombay came to her and attempted to convince her to keep him in school, especially as he was excelling and had achieved remarkable grades. They even said to her, “What will become of him when he is a Moulana? If you do not give him school education, how will he earn a livelihood? He will even be dependent on people for his roti!” To this, his mother replied, “If he studies Deen correctly, then Allah Ta‘ala will cause the world to fall at his feet.”

Moulana (rahimahullah) was once reading to his mother from a certain book when she spontaneously said, “O my son! Today, you are reading to me and only I am listening to you! Allah Ta‘ala will bring the day when hundreds of thousands of people will listen to you! I have no doubt regarding this!”

(Sawaanih Moulana Muhammad ‘Umar Paalanpuri (rahimahullah) pgs. 59-63 and Mithaali Khawaateen pgs. 271-273)

Lessons:

  1. Every parent has aspirations and dreams for their child, and they are prepared to make any sacrifice for their child’s sake. Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother was no different – however her dream was for her son to become an ‘Aalim of Deen, serving Islam and spreading the message of Allah Ta‘ala. For this purpose, she was even prepared to send her young son over a thousand kilometres away with his ustaaz, and even took a loan to fund his studies.
  2. When faced with the opposition of her family, Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother stood firm. She explained that if her son studied Deen correctly (i.e. he works with dedication and studies solely for the sake of pleasing Allah Ta‘ala – not for any other motive), then Allah Ta‘ala will most certainly look after him. In fact, the words that she used were ‘the world will fall at his feet’ – and this became a reality.
  3. Moulana’s (rahimahullah) mother wanted him to become an ‘Aalim so that he would become her investment in the Hereafter, and so that he could help her to improve her Deen. Hence, although he was the son and she was the mother, she would ask him to teach her and educate her regarding different aspects of Deen. This clearly highlights the level of her sincerity and her zeal for Deen.

WHEN SPOUSES CURSE – HAZRAT MAULANA YUNUS PATEL SAHEB (RAHMATULLAH ALAYH)

A husband complained that he was always angry with his wife, and they continuously argued.…

There are so many such cases: If it is not the husband complaining of his wife, it is the wife complaining of her husband.In this case, having been informed of the weaknesses of his wife, which are common to other women as well, I said: ‘I agree with you that there are weaknesses in women. However, there are also weaknesses in men. …Moreover, your anger is for worldly reasons. You are cursing your wife and inviting that same curse upon yourself.’

I then explained to him: ‘When you curse your wife on her defiance, non-compliance or her indifference to your rights, then ALLAH TA’ALA’S AZAAB descends upon her. When that punishment reaches her, she will not be the only who will suffer. As her husband, you too suffer. If she is afflicted with illness or meets up with some accident, the burden of expense falls upon you, as the husband. You will have to take care of her, and will also find difficulty in that she will not be able to see to you and the children, and the maintenance of the home, etc.

And if she has to curse you, she too will find herself in a situation of trial and difficulty. ’There are those women who have the bad habit of cursing their husbands and children – and generally this is due to impatience or frustration. Instead of turning to ALLAH TA’ALA and making Du’aa, they utter such words, which sometimes finds acceptance in the heavens, but becomes a source of great regret.It is due to this tendency of cursing and being ungrateful to spouses that RASULULLAAH (SALLALLAAHU ‘ALAYHI WASALLAM) directed WOMEN towards giving CHARITY and SEEKING FORGIVENESS.

Thus, when ALLAH TA’ALA punishes the husband or the child, then the wife or mother is left lamenting her plight. It may be that ALLAH TA’ALA accepts her curse, and in a fit of anger the husband divorces the wife, he loses his wife and children and she is left in dire circumstances as a divorcee; or it may be that ALLAH TA’ALA accepts the curse, and as such his entire business collapses. Then poverty becomes the lot of not just the husband, but also the wife who cursed, and the children. There are so many ways that curses are Divinely accepted.

ALHAMDULILLAAH, the husband explained the above to his wife and they both agreed that arguing and cursing was not the solution. Arguments are the cause of great satisfaction and joy to shaytaan, whose great effort is to destroy marriages. Arguments, in fact, indicate to shaytaan’s presence in our homes. It is the stepping stone to enmity between husband and wife, and can easily end up with divorce, a broken home and many other problems.

Who does not want a happy marriage? Who does not want Sukoon (tranquility) in marriage? However, to achieve this, some effort has to be made. We just have to train ourselves to adopt HILM (TOLERANCE) and SABR (PATIENCE) at times, and learn to curb the tendency to argue and fight – which is otherwise common even for the most petty reasons.

If we can all keep before us the following HADEETH and have YAQEEN and conviction on the words of RASULULLAAH (SALLALLAAHU ‘ALAYHI WASALLAM), many arguments would not even surface and there would be peace and tranquility:

“I guarantee a house in the middle of Paradise to the one who forsakes argument even when he is in the right.’

Appreciating the men around us

In the current exposé climate we live in, it is easy to become swept up in the furore of public outrage and condemnation. However, as reflective and forward-thinking people, we should always scrutinise a bandwagon before jumping on it.

It is frustrating to see how different problems and issues that are independent of each other become merged together. At times, it seems that we deal with injustices by being unjust. As reasonable as it is to think that not every White person is racist, not every man is sexist too. We cannot deal with racism by demonising White people, and we cannot bring greater respect for women by hating men. Sweeping generalisations do not help anyone – real equality should be in treating everyone with respect. The greater danger of this stereotyping is that it can make one lose their identity and create self-fulfilling behaviour, lowered self-esteem, and may even lead to problems in relationships and marriages. Too often, the ugly stories of evil deeds are given so much attention that we are left wondering, “Are there any good guys left?”

We all know there are issues within the Ummah. While it is important to not hide from problems that are taboo, these need to be tackled systematically rather than quick fixes or actions that may later destroy the very fabric of the nuclear family and communities at large. We can see that change is needed. Rather than accept common perceptions and norms, we need to use our own model – one that takes our history, culture, and religion into consideration. Through this, we can create our own discourse by which we can navigate and push for positive and meaningful change.

“He who does not thank the people is not thankful to Allāh.”[1]

We are living through a unique time in history, with many learning points from what is going on in this current pandemic. For example, taking all the good we have been blessed with for granted is a grave error. The UK is the world’s 6th richest country,[2] but when schools were closed, forget all the teaching time the young were missing: food collections were needed to provide food for many children in what was perhaps their only proper meal for the day! As difficult as it may have been to be stuck at home with running water, electricity, and Wi-Fi, this cannot be compared to the many trials that those around us are facing. A number of us enjoyed reconnecting with our husbands, wives, and children, even if it lasted a couple of weeks before we got on each other’s nerves! However, for some, lockdown was a sentence. There was no escape and nowhere to retreat from the violence that only escalated. The charity Women’s Aid reported that ‘67 per cent of survivors who are currently experiencing abuse said it has got worse since Covid-19 and 72 per cent said their abuser had more control over their life.’[3]

Numerous families in the UK have absent fathers. Children are having to be raised in single-parent families, and the connection between this and problems at a later age are well documented. Raising children with a father who is present – and one who cares and contributes to the children’s nurturing and tarbiyyah even if on a minimal level – is no small matter. Being safe in your own home and not fearing for your life cannot be taken for granted. Being with someone who treats you well and values you as a human and is generally a good person should not be taken for granted. It is possible to simultaneously appreciate the good while working on the bad – this is the meaning of commitment.

So, as a forward-thinking and reflective woman who uses my own discourse to understand the world around me, I need to realise that I am the result of some great men around me who ultimately gave me the safety and security to be who I am. I know this is the case for the majority of Muslim women. Many of us have had the good fortune to live with (and to have been raised by and work with) decent and honourable men. This should not be forgotten nor overlooked. Rather, we need to celebrate this and be grateful to Allāh.

Being grateful and appreciative when looking at people’s positive qualities helps us to deal with each other better and create the opportunity for growth and development. Whether we are dealing with our children, husbands, colleagues, or siblings, being grateful aids us in improving and forming better relationships.

“They (your wives) are your garment and you are a garment for them.”[4]

The majority of Muslim men take their roles as heads of household very seriously. Many women do not worry that bills will not be paid or that their children cannot get new clothes. They deal with everyone around them with decency and uprightness. As brothers, Muslim men love and honour their mothers and sisters. As fathers, they show mercy and kindness. As husbands, they are devoted to their wives. Many work with women and know how to keep their boundaries. Our leaders and imams make great sacrifices to build communities and provide services.

“And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them – perhaps you dislike a thing and Allāh makes therein much good.”[5]

“Let not a believing man hate a believing woman. If he dislikes one quality in her, he will be pleased with another.”[6]

I do not deny that there are bad apples amongst us and that the suffering they cause is far reaching, but I choose not to allow that to ruin the whole bunch. Sometimes, a fruit or vegetable might have a small bruise, but this can be removed and the rest of it is still of use.

We need to realise that what we imagine as the ‘perfect’ person is itself a construct of society. The problem with this mindset is that these ideals are often generated and reinforced to create false expectations. Currently, about a ‘third of the planet’s food goes to waste, often because of its looks. That’s enough to feed two billion people.’[7] None of us are perfect. What we all really want is to be able to feel that our flaws are overlooked and put into context rather than them becoming a label that we find hard to shift.

A woman’s role in creating a better society is pivotal. As Muslim women, we need to start with ourselves in moulding a positive mindset as well as being the ones to encourage this in others. We need to take active responsibility in cultivating our sons to become great men like those from our illustrious history, and we should support, encourage, and recognise the worth of our menfolk. In so doing, perhaps we can make a bandwagon of our own that suits us better.

Source: http://www.islam21c.com

Notes:

[1] Sunan Abi Dāwūd

[2] https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/

[3] https://www.womensaid.org.uk/survivors-say-domestic-abuse-is-escalating-under-lockdown/

[4] Al-Qur’ān 2:187

[5] Al-Qur’ān 4:19

[6] Sahīh Muslim

[7] https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/03/global-food-waste-statistics/

SEEKING A PIOUS WIFE?

“SEEKING A PIOUS WIFE?”

AN ALMOST INSURMOUNTABLE OBSTACLE

A brother writes:

Assalamu’alaykum

How does a Deeni conscious young person find a pious wife in this day and age? The following are the issues faced by many Muslim men living in the west

(A) Virtually every woman thinks it’s her right to go out and work and there is no issue with it, despite the Qur’anic injunction to the contrary? The income of that house from her earnings is therefore haraam, yet her, the husband and kids eat from that earning and then wonder why there is discord and lack of harmony.

(B) The work environment and western ideology of liberation means that a wife nowadays is more masculine than her husband in terms of her bullish mannerisms, raising her voice, laughing like a hyena, with no vestige of haya, which is supposed to be the inherent beauty of a woman. In fact, the man is rendered senseless by her increasing bravado, wondering whether he in fact married a woman or a masculine lesbian.

(C) They believe in equal rights as espoused by Western ideology which is at odds with Islam’s concept of roles and duties in society and their importance. In fact, if you explain to them the important role women play in Islam, they perceive it to be backward. Shaytan has urinated the concept of Western ideology in to their brains and they are drowning in it.

(D) Many won’t wear the niqab because either it’s a symbol of oppression or because they deceptively argue that modesty is in the clothes which one wears and, more importantly, modesty is of the heart. There was none more modest than Hadhrat Fatima (Radiallahu Anha) but apparently today’s women know better.

(E) Many “divorcees” are not even divorced in terms of Shari’ah. Either they used a kuffar court, or there is no conclusive evidence that the husband did issue divorce in the correct manner. As The Majlis has mentioned, Deen has become a mere hobby, and therefore people apply their own logic and understanding as to what is correct, without any prior knowledge of the rules.

(F) Nowadays, many a woman, makes kufr utterances weekly, if not daily. Their masculinity has led to lack of control of their mouth. Many a time we hear unthinking or dismissive statements made by them in anger which are clear cut kufr and yet they know it not and the cuckold husband doesn’t have the courage to rectify it.

(G) There is a new phenomenon in Asian communities where the woman despite getting married dictates, as per her western masters, how often she will visit her family. In fact, the time she spends with her family at the expense of the husband would suggest that the function of nikah ceases to exist.

In such fitnas mentioned above, how does a man find a wife, especially to save himself from fitna? (End of letter)

COMMENT

Just as it is almost impossible to find pious husbands in this immoral era in which immorality and kufr dominates, so too is it an almost insurmountable task to find a pious wife. Furthermore, in general it has been observed that even an immoral man hopes to marry a pious woman. This delusion is debunked by the Qur’aan Majeed which says that “khabeethaat is for khabeethoon and vice versa. An immoral man should not expect and yearn for a pious wife, and vice versa.

Marrying a woman who has lesbian tendencies will most certainly create severe problems which will ruin the marriage. All women who work in the public sector have haraam and lesbian tendencies. In fact, they are not only deficient in Imaan, they lack Imaan. They pretend to be Muslims in view of the fact of having been born in Muslim homes.

Whatever the Brother has commented regarding the women of today is 100% correct. But the very same comments apply to the males of today as well, and this includes molvis and shaikhs. Nowadays, being a molvi is not a recommendation for marriage. The molvis are not only corrupt in morals, but also either are deficient in Imaan or lack Imaan.

We are living in a cesspool of inequity. Genuine Muslims are being buffeted in a whirlpool of anarchy and mischief. Fitnah and Fasaad reign dominantly. There is no standard method or plan of finding a pious wife or a pious husband. Just make dua and continue the search in lawful ways. But remember, that as long the man / woman does not obey Allah Ta’ala, and if they indulge in all the porn filth so freely available today, they should regard the quest for a pious wife / husband to be a distant pipedream. They will just have to content themselves with khabeethoon and khabeethaat, and marriages in which shaitaaniyat will reign.

8 Muharram 1442 – 28 August 2020

Is wearing the Niqab/Pardah Fardh or Sunnah?

QUESTION
Assalamu Alaikum Respected Mufti Saheb. I would like Mufti Saheb to please respond to this. A few girls were told about the obligation of covering and wearing pardah. An Aalim of the town told these girls that it is not Fardh and a must, it is a sunnah. He even contacted Muftis that also say its sunnah. We would appreciate Mufti Saheb response and advice on what to do. Jazakallah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Please refer to the following link to find a detailed response on the above query:

http://www.askimam.org/public/question_detail/28588

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mahmood Suliman

Student Darul Iftaa
Gaborone, Botswana

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

Where does it say in the Quran that women must observe Hijab?

My Question is related to Hijab..I want to know the proper Defination of Hijab Because in different areas of the world Hijab is Defined in different way.some of women cover full body except their eyes and some cover their whole busy except their face. So i just need to know what is proper defination of Hijab in Qur’an.If it is to cover all the body except eyes then why scholar like Zakir Naik who is firm believer of Qur’an is going on the Different track.(Cover the whole body except face).

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.Sister in Islam,It is encouraging to note your zeal in seeking clarity regarding such an issue. Since the rulings of Hijāb are a very delicate matter, we feel that it is important to first provide some introductory points before answering your specific query. The Purpose of HijābFirst and foremost, it is of absolute importance that one understands the social structure Islam attempts to establish within a Muslim society in regards to the intermingling of men and women. Throughout the Quran we find many verses that point to this very fact. Allah Ta’ālā says in the Holy Quran:وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا And do not even go near fornication. It is indeed a shame and an evil way to follow.[1]He the Almighty says in another verse:وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّAnd say to the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment.[2]Expounding on this message, the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:كُتِبَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ نَصِيبُهُ مِنَ الزِّنَا، مُدْرِكٌ ذَلِكَ لَا مَحَالَةَ، فَالْعَيْنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا النَّظَرُ، وَالْأُذُنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا الِاسْتِمَاعُ، وَاللِّسَانُ زِنَاهُ الْكَلَامُ، وَالْيَدُ زِنَاهَا الْبَطْشُ، وَالرِّجْلُ زِنَاهَا الْخُطَا، وَالْقَلْبُ يَهْوَى وَيَتَمَنَّى، وَيُصَدِّقُ ذَلِكَ الْفَرْجُ وَيُكَذِّبُهُ Allah has written for the children of Adam their share of zina which he commits inevitably. The zina of the eyes is the sight (to gaze at a forbidden thing), the zina of the ears is to hear, the zina of the tongue is the talk, the zina of the hands is to touch (that which is forbidden), the zina of the feet is to take steps (towards that which is forbidden) and the heart wishes and desires and the private parts testify all this or deny it.[3]It is clear from the above that the overall purpose behind establishing laws pertaining to separation between men and women is simply to protect their chastity and to establish a society wherein all doors leading to immorality and indecency are closed off right from its roots. Similarly, the hijāb is also a mechanism used to further these ideals by becoming an instrument that hinders zinā and all of its malevolent forms.Women and Today’s SocietyIn a society dictated by slogans of liberty and justice, a new generation has been born that thrives off of freedom of expression. This leads some to believe that the hijāb is anti-progressive, but such a notion is far from reality. Allah Ta’ālā has created women in this world with an alluring beauty that seizes the hearts of men and brings forth emotions of pure love and infatuation. It is for this reason that women continue to be exploited today through private and commercial means.It is also no secret that societies today are brimming with news concerning cases of rape and sexual assault. In a society where social acceptance through superficial means of one’s outer beauty has become mainstream, it is of no surprise that such would be the end result. As a premonition to such an outcome, the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) warned us in the following words:صِنْفَانِ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ لَمْ أَرَهُمَا، قَوْمٌ مَعَهُمْ سِيَاطٌ كَأَذْنَابِ الْبَقَرِ يَضْرِبُونَ بِهَا النَّاسَ، وَنِسَاءٌ كَاسِيَاتٌ عَارِيَاتٌ مُمِيلَاتٌ مَائِلَاتٌ… Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, who would incline others (towards evil) and themselves would be inclined (towards it)…[4] Through the tenets of Islam we form a stabilized society that protects women from all avenues that may lead to their mistreatment and exploitation. Only through practice can one see the respect a woman holds who is garbed from head to toe in clothes that protect her beauty and chastity. It is a sign of honor, dignity, and iman that brings to light the revered status of women in the eyes of Allah the Almighty.Difference between Satr and HijābWhen one hears the word hijāb, it is often assumed that the laws pertaining to it are the same as the laws of satr (the concealing of which is obligatory for everyone – legally, naturally and rationally). As a matter of fact, the laws of satr have remained an obligation from the very beginning, in all religious codes of the noble prophets and not only from the advent of Islam.[5] It is an injunction stemming from the natural disposition of insān that shows the intrinsic qualities of hayā (shame and modesty) that existed from the very inception of humankind. One can see the example of such qualities in the story Ādam and Hawā (alaihimas salam) as they hastened to cover themselves upon seeing their bare selves revealed[6]. Similarly, we find such an attribute in the story of Musā (‘alaihis salam) and the two girls who were fetching water from a well. Whilst one was walking towards Musā (alaihi salam), she treaded in a manner showing complete shame and modesty. Allah Ta’ālā revealed this quality in the following words:فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ Then one of the two women came to him, walking in a manner showing hayā.[7]On the other hand, the laws of hijāb came about much after during the latter half of the prophethood of Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).[8] As such, laws regarding covering oneself in private and public are different from the laws of hijāb that pertain more to rulings that require women to conceal themselves in the presence of non-mahram men[9].Consider an example from the following hadīth:عَنْ نَبْهَانَ، مَوْلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، أَنَّهُ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَتْهُ أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَيْمُونَةَ قَالَتْ: فَبَيْنَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَهُ أَقْبَلَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ بَعْدَ مَا أُمِرْنَا بِالحِجَابِ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: احْتَجِبَا مِنْهُ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ أَلَيْسَ هُوَ أَعْمَى لاَ يُبْصِرُنَا وَلاَ يَعْرِفُنَا؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَفَعَمْيَاوَانِ أَنْتُمَا أَلَسْتُمَا تُبْصِرَانِهِ. It is narrated by Nabhān the freed slave of Umm Salamah(radiyallahu ‘anha) that Umm Salamah (radiyallahu ‘anha) narrated to him, that she and Maymunah (radiyallahu ‘anha) were with the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), she said: “So when we were with him, Ibn Umm Maktum (radiyallahu ‘anhu) came, and he entered upon him, and that was after veiling had been ordered for us. So the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Veil yourselves from him.’ So I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is he not blind such that he cannot see us or recognize us?’ So the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Are you two blind such that you cannot see him?'” One point of consideration is the fact that the addressees of this command of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) were none other than two of the Umm al-Mu’minīn (mother of the believers), Sayyidatuna Umm Salamah and Sayyidatuna Maymūnah (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). If the blessed wives of the Holy Prophet (salllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who were at the pinnacle of piety and modesty were commanded to conceal themselves from men, then what can we say about the women of today who live in an era where people vie for social standing by sacrificing their modesty for the sake of public acceptance?Now that we have understood that the laws of satr are not only different, but existed before the laws of hijāb, we will commence with the discussion of Quranic texts relating to the injunctions of hijāb.The Degrees of HijābWhen taking a look at the various verses dealing with the injunction of hijāb, one can divide these verses into three levels, or “degrees”, of hijāb.-The First Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah al-Ahzāb, verse 53:وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّAnd when you ask anything from them (the blessed wives of the Prophet), ask them from behind a curtain. That is better for the purity of your hearts and their hearts.This verse deals with the first degree of hijāb which discusses concealment of women in their own homes. This can further be substantiated by the following verse:وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىAnd remain in your homes, and do not display (your) beauty as it used to be displayed in the days of earlier ignorance.[10]This degree of hijāb encourages women to stay in their homes and conceal themselves and their beauty from the fitnah the lurks outside the four walls of her home. This means that they should not allow anyone outside of their homes to see any portion of their body, whether it be the face or any other part of the body.[11] Furthermore, this points to the fact that women should try their best to remain in their homes unless there is a need to go out as there is a danger to their chastity and is a means of fitnah for her.[12] The following hadīth points out to this fact:عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: الْمَرْأَةُ عَوْرَةٌ، فَإِذَا خَرَجَتْ اسْتَشْرَفَهَا الشَّيْطَانُ. It is narrated that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “The woman is one who should be concealed, so when she goes out, the Shaitan seeks to tempt her.”[13] Although the addressees of these verses are the blessed wives of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), the injunctions related to them are common to all Muslim women as pointed out by many great muffassirūn (exegetes) such as Imam al-Qurtubi in his famous tafsīr, Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān.[14]-The Second Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah al-Ahzāb, verse 53:يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ O prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they should draw down their jilbāb (shawls) over them.Herein mentioned is the second degree of hijāb. This level of hijāb deals with how women should conceal themselves when they have a need to leave their house. The jilbāb here actually refers to a piece of clothing large enough that it covers the entire body from head to toe.[15] The method of dawning the jilbāb is a point of contention amongst the ‘ūlamā; Imam Qurtubi mentions in his tafsīr: وَاخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِي صُورَةِ إِرْخَائِهِ، فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَعَبِيدَةُ السَّلْمَانِيُّ: ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَلْوِيَهُ الْمَرْأَةُ حَتَّى لَا يَظْهَرَ مِنْهَا إِلَّا عَيْنٌ وَاحِدَةٌ تُبْصِرُ بِهَا. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا وَقَتَادَةُ: ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَلْوِيَهُ فَوْقَ الْجَبِينِ وَتَشُدَّهُ، ثُمَّ تَعْطِفُهُ عَلَى الْأَنْفِ، وَإِنْ ظَهَرَتْ عَيْنَاهَا لَكِنَّهُ يَسْتُرُ الصَّدْرَ وَمُعْظَمَ الْوَجْهِ. وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ: تُغَطِّي نِصْفَ وَجْهِهَا. People have differed in regards to the method of dawning it (the jilbāb). Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) and ‘Abīdah as-Salmānī (rahimahullah) state: It means to wrap it up in such a way that everything is concealed except that (the area of) one eye is left open for her to see with. Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) (in another narration) and Qatādah (rahimahullah) say: It means to wrap it up above the forehead and to fasten it, then to fold it till above the nose even if both eyes are left open; although, she will have to cover her chest and majority of her face. Hasan (rahimahullah) says: She will cover half of her face.[16]Similar narrations have been mentioned in other books of tafāsīr as well.[17]From this we can clearly see that the mufassirūn and great figures of the past such as Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) consider that the dawning of the jilbāb for women includes the covering of the face. This is to the extent that there are narrations of leaving only one eye open as well. To substantiate this further, Imam Qurtubi also states under the tafsīr of this verse:لَمَّا كَانَتْ عَادَةُ الْعَرَبِيَّاتِ التَّبَذُّلَ، وَكُنَّ يَكْشِفْنَ وُجُوهَهُنَّ كَمَا يَفْعَلُ الْإِمَاءُ، وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ دَاعِيَةً إِلَى نَظَرِ الرِّجَالِ إِلَيْهِنَّ، وَتَشَعُّبِ الْفِكْرَةِ فِيهِنَّ، أَمَرَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَأْمُرَهُنَّ بِإِرْخَاءِ الْجَلَابِيبِ عَلَيْهِنَّ إِذَا أَرَدْنَ الْخُرُوجَ إِلَى حَوَائِجِهِنَّ Since it was the habit of the Arab women to display their beauty as they would reveal their faces like the female slaves, and since such an action would lead to other men looking at them and filling their minds with thoughts of those women, Allah Ta’ālā commanded the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to instruct the (Muslim) women to hang down their shawls over them whenever they would have a desire to go out for their needs.[18] -The Third Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah an-Nūr, verse 31:وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ And say to the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment (i.e. places of beauty), except that which appears thereof, and must wrap their bosoms with their shawls…This verse discusses the third and final degree of hijāb, which deals with hijāb of the second degree along with an exception to reveal certain portions of the body.[19] The meaning of this verse is apparent; a women is not allowed to display her beauty and she should cover herself with her shawl. Although, scholars differ as to what the words “except that which appears thereof” refers to. Many mufassirūn such as Imam at-Tabarī[20], Imam al-Qurtubī[21], and Imam Ibn Kathīr[22] have discussed the different narrations and opinions regarding this issue in detail. Mufti Shafī ‘Uthmānī has provided a concise summary of the differences in his book Ahkām al-Qurān in the following words:و حاصل الكلام في تفسير ما ظهر أنه مختلف فيه بين الصحابة والتابعين فعبد الله بن مسعود و من تابعه فسروه بالثياب و الجلباب، و علي ذلك فلا حجة فيه لمن استثني الوجه والكفين عن الحجاب…و عبد الله ابن عباس و عبد الله بن عمر و من تابعهما فسروا قوله تعالي: ولا يبدين زينتهن إلا ما ظهر منها، بقولهم: إنه الوجه والكفان. وهو محتمل المعنيين، الأول: أنه تفسير للزينة التي نهين عن إبدائها، فعلي هذا رجع هذا القول أيضا إلي معني قول ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه، فلم يكن الوجه والكفان من مستثنيات، والمعني الثاني: أنه تفسير لما ظهر، وعلي هذا الأحتمال كان الوجه والكفان مستثنيان من الحجابThe summary of the differences regarding the tafsīr of “that which appears thereof” is that a difference of opinion exists between the Sahabah and Tābi’īn themselves. ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu) and those who are of his opinion say that it refers to (their) clothes and the jilbāb. According to this opinion, there is no room for those who exempt the face and the hands from hijāb…’Abdullah bin ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) interpret the words “and must not expose their adornment, except that which appears thereof” as meaning the face and the hands. This tafsīr holds two possibilities. The first possibility: This (face and hands) is the tafsīr for the word “adornment” from which women have been forbidden to display. According to this tafsīr, in meaning it will be the same as the interpretation of Ibn Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu); therefore, the hands and face will not be exempt (from the hijāb). The second possibility: This is the tafsīr for “that which appears thereof”. According to this possibility, the face and the hands will be exempt from the hijāb.[23]In more simple terms, the verses according to each interpretation will mean:(1) According to the tafsīr of Ibn Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu): And (they) must not expose their adornment, except their outer garments (e.g. their jilbāb).(2) According to the tafsīr of Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma): And (they) must not expose their adornment, except their hands and faces.It is important to take note that this discussion only pertains to the interpretation of this verse and not the ruling for the hijāb itself. Clarification on Women Exposing Their FaceOne may conclude through this that there remains scope for women to expose their face as it is a valid tafsīr of this verse. In order clear this misconception, we will expound with the following points:(1) After discussing the various opinions, Imam Qurtubī says in his tafsīr:قَالَ ابْنُ عَطِيَّةَ: وَيَظْهَرُ لِي بِحُكْمِ أَلْفَاظِ الْآيَةِ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ مَأْمُورَةٌ بِأَلَّا تُبْدِيَ وَأَنْ تَجْتَهِدَ فِي الْإِخْفَاءِ لِكُلِّ مَا هُوَ زِينَةٌ، وَوَقَعَ الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ فِيمَا يَظْهَرُ بِحُكْمِ ضَرُورَةِ حَرَكَةٍ فِيمَا لَا بُدَّ مِنْهُ، أَوْ إِصْلَاحِ شَأْنٍ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ. فَ”- مَا ظَهَرَ” عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ مِمَّا تُؤَدِّي إِلَيْهِ الضَّرُورَةُ فِي النِّسَاءِ فَهُوَ الْمَعْفُوُّ عَنْهُ. قُلْتُ: هَذَا قَوْلٌ حَسَنٌ، إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَمَّا كَانَ الْغَالِبُ مِنَ الْوَجْهِ وَالْكَفَّيْنِ ظُهُورُهُمَا عَادَةً وَعِبَادَة..فَيَصْلُحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ رَاجِعًا إِلَيْهِمَا Ibn ‘Atiyyah says: “What becomes apparent to me in regards to the ruling derived from the words of this verse is that women are commanded to not reveal themselves and that they try their best to conceal all that is considered to be adornment (beauty). The exception made here is due to certain movements that are absolutely necessary (for women to do) or in order to fix something, etc. As such, “that which appears thereof” in this context refers to revealing at times of necessity for women; therefore, it is amongst those things that are forgiven (due to a need).” According to me [referring to Imam al-Qurtubī himself], this is a better approach, except that since the face and hands become revealed habitually or at times of ībādah…it is better to say that the exception refers to those two times
(only).24 There are some who mention that revealing the face is permissible for women if there is no fear of fitnah[25]. In regards to this, Imam Jalāluddīn al-Mahallī mentions in his Tafsīr al-Jalālayn:{وَلَا يُبْدِينَ}…{زِينَتهنَّ إلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} وَهُوَ الْوَجْه وَالْكَفَّانِ فَيَجُوز نَظَره لِأَجْنَبِيٍّ إنْ لَمْ يَخَفْ فِتْنَة فِي أَحَد وَجْهَيْنِ وَالثَّانِي يَحْرُم لِأَنَّهُ مَظِنَّة الْفِتْنَة وَرُجِّحَ حَسْمًا لِلْبَابِ[The verse says] “And they must not expose”…”their adornment, except that which appears thereof”. This refers to the face and the hands; therefore it should be permissible for one to look at a woman (i.e. her face) if he does not feel there will be fitnah. This is according to one opinion; the other opinion is that such an act is harām since there is a possibility of fitnah. This (second) opinion has been given preference in order to close the doors (leading to fitnah).[26]Mufti Shafī’ comments on this as well in the following words:و أنت خبير بأن هذا أمر يعز وجوده في القرون الأولي أيضا إلا ما شاء الله تعالي، ويشهد له قصة الفضل ابن عباس مع امرأة خثعمية بأن النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم حول وجه الفضل عنها، و قال: رأيت شابا و شابة فلم آمن عليهما الفتنة، كما رواه البخاري والترمذي، فما ظنك بزماننا الذي بدا فيه التساوي بين المحاسن والمساوي، وكادت القلوب أن تكون منكوسة فلاتعرف معروفا و لا تنكر منكرا، و عادت الفواحش فيه مفخرا، واتخذت المناهي متجرا؛ تجارت بهم الأهواء كما تتجار الكلب بصاحبه، و يخبط بهم الهوي في مذاهبه وغياهبه؟ فكيف يحصل الأمن واليقين علي أنه لا يحدث في نفسه الميلان إلي قربها بالنظر إليها؟ You already know that such a thing (not having fear of fitnah) was seldom found during the first era of Muslims as well (i.e. the time of the Holy Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and his Sahabah radiyallahu ‘anhum) except that which Allah Ta’ālā wanted. The story of Fadl ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhu) and the woman of Khath’amiyyah attests to this fact since the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) turned the face of Fadl away from her (when he saw them staring at each other) as he told them: “I saw a young man and a young woman and I did not feel secure from fitnah arising between them.” As narrated by Imam Bukhārī and Imam Tirmidhī. [Considering this] what do you think is the situation in our times where good and evil have been labeled as equal, the hearts (of people) have turned upside down to the extent that they cannot even differentiate between wrong from right, where indecency (i.e. adultery, prostitution, etc.) has returned as a means to boast one’s own ego, where forbidden acts have become a business? A time where selfish desires travel with people like a dog travels with his partner? Where wishes and fancies have plunged people into its depths and its darkness. So how can one feel secure and certain that one’s heart will not be inclined towards her (i.e. towards committing indecency with her) when one’s eyes are focused on her?27 All four schools of thought (i.e. Mālikī, Hanbalī, Shafi’ī, and Hanafī) agree that it is impermissible for women to expose their face in front of non-mahram men[28].After discussing the points above, the conclusion the we arrive at is that although there is a difference of opinion regarding the tafsīr of verse thirty one of Surah an-Nūr, there remains no discrepancy in regards to the ruling derived therefrom. That is to say that even though there are authentic narrations concerning the meaning of “except that which appears thereof”, there still remains no disagreement pertaining to the application of the verse according to the vast majority of the fuqahā, especially in reference to our time where fitnah lurks at every corner; therefore, it is not feasible for women to leave their homes with their faces uncovered in front of non-mahram men.The core of this discussion boils down to the fact that the third degree of hijāb no longer remains an issue, whether it is because one opts for Ibn Masūd’s (radiyallahu ‘anhu) tafsīr of the verse which states that “except that which appears thereof” simply refers to women’s outer garments and ornaments, or because the revealing of one’s face in our times can lead to fitnah, and in order to close this door completely, the ruling of impermissibility was given preference.[29] The Field of AhkāmBefore we conclude this discussion, we would like to make one final point. The saying goes “to each his own”, but does this apply to the laws of Shari’ah? Like any other field, Islamic sciences have also been divided into different categories each with their own specialists. The muhaddithūn are tasked with preserving the words and asānīd (chains of narration) of ahādīth for later generations, whereas the mufassirūn discuss the meanings, interpretations, and explanations of the verses in the Holy Qurān. Similarly, the fuqahā are those who spent a great portion of their lives deducing rulings from the Holy Qurān and the Ahādīth of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). One may say that each field is also linked to the other in one way or another.The point of consideration is that simply because one is a master in one field it does not necessitate that he is a master in another. If one holds a PhD in mechanical engineering, it does not mean that he has the knowledge to perform a surgery on a patient requiring a bypass. This also goes for one who has studied immensely on his own but does not hold the credentials needed to assert his authority in front of those who hold valid credentials in that field. For example, if one studies hundreds of books on the subject of medicine, keeps up with WebMD every day, and further reads every article regarding medicine for fifteen years, he still does not hold the credentials that a student of medicine would hold that only studied for a mere seven to eight years. The reason being is that certain sciences require certain procedures and experience under direct supervision of an authority in order to be labelled as a master in that field.To substantiate this point, consider the words of Imam Tirmidhī, a great and renowned muhaddith, regarding the status of the fuqaha:وَهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَعَانِي الحَدِيثِ And they (the fuqahā) have more knowledge of the meanings of the ahādīth.[30]To conclude, while there may be some who attempt to interpret the meanings of the Qurān and ahādīth in their own way, the rulings derived therefrom will not be taken into consideration unless uttered by the fuqahā themselves. The reason is very simple, the fuqahā are masters in the field of deduction and have written thousands and thousands of books on various subjects of ahkām. Furthermore, such a claim is not something new; rather, the chain of fuqahā and their mastery in this field can be traced back to the first century of Islam. Their words have always been accepted as the final judgment in all matters of fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) for over one thousand years. Simply being god fearing and a firm believer of the Quran does not mean one cannot err, especially when one’s opinion is weighed against a thousand years of study backed by thousands of scholars from the four accepted schools of thought. Such an opinion in the end contradicts ijmā’ (consensus) and holds no weight in the sciences of fiqh and deduction.The fact of the matter is that although one may have done great and outstanding work in a certain field and attained a high status in the eyes of the public, it does not necessitate that he has the credentials to make decisions regarding other fields of Islam.May Allah Ta’ālā accept the efforts of all those who defend Islam and may He continue to take work from them. Ameen.And Allah Ta’āla Knows BestBilal MohammadStudent Darul Iftaa
New Jersey, USAChecked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.www.daruliftaa.net

[1] Al-Quran, Al-Isrā, 32
[2] Al-Quran, An-Nūr, 31
[3] Sahīh Muslim, Book of al-Qadr (Fate), vol. 4, pg. 2047, Dar Ihyā at-Turāth
[4] Sahih Muslim, 2128, The Book of Clothes and Adornment
[5] Ma’ariful Quran, ” The Difference Between the Injunctions of Satr-ul-‘Awrah and Veiling of Women (Hijab)”, Surah al-Ahzab:53
[6] فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِنْ وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ(سورة الأعراف، ٢٢)
[7] Al-Quran, Surah al-Qasas:25
[8] Ibid.;Ahkām al-Quran by Mufti Shafī’ ‘Uthmānī, vol. 3, pg. 404-406, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[9] Ma’ariful Quran, “The Second Issue – the Hijab of Women”, Surah al-Ahzab:53;Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 408, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[10] Surah al-Ahzab:33
[11] Ma’ariful Quran, “The First Degree of Hijab from People by Virtue of Staying Home”, Surah al-Ahzab:53; الأولي من سورة الأحزاب هذه الآية أعني قوله تعالي: و إذا سألتموهن متاعا فاسألوهن من وراء حجاب، و هي أول آية نزلت في الحجاب…و هذه الآية تدل علي أن كيفية الحجاب الشرعي هو التستر بالبيوت والخدور بحيث لا ينكشف للرجال شيء من أبدانهن و زينتهن…(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٠٨، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)؛ الأولي: حجاب الأشخاص بالبيوت والجدر والخدور والهوادج و أمثالها، بحيث لا يري الرجال الأجانب شيئا من أشخاصهن و لا لباسهن و زينتهن الظاهرة و لا الباطنة، و لا شيئا من جسدهن من الوجه والكفين و سائر البدن(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٤، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)؛ (فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ) يقول: من وراء ستر بينكم وبينهن، ولا تدخلوا عليهن بيوتهن (ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ) يقول تعالى ذكره: سؤالكم إياهن المتاع إذا سألتموهن ذلك من وراء حجاب أطهر لقلوبكم وقلوبهن من عوارض العين فيها التي تعرض في صدور الرجال من أمر النساء، وفي صدور النساء من أمر الرجال، وأحرى من أن لا يكون للشيطان عليكم وعليهن سبيل.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٢، ص ٣٩، دار الفكر)
[12] الثاني: أمرهن بملازمة البيوت. وهو أمر مطلوب من سائر النساء…و قد يحرم عليهن الخروج…وما يجوز من الخروج كالخروج للحج و زيارة الوالدين و عيادة المرضي و تعزية الأموات من الأقارب…وقال ابن كثير: و قرن في بيوتكن، أي الزمن بيوتكن فلا تخرجن بغير حاجة.(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٠٨، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[13] Sunan at-Tirmidhi, 1173, The Book of Suckling
[14] وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا.مَعْنَى هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ الْأَمْرُ بِلُزُومِ الْبَيْتِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْخِطَابُ لِنِسَاءِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَدْ دَخَلَ غَيْرُهُنَّ فِيهِ بِالْمَعْنَى. هَذَا لَوْ لَمْ يَرِدْ دَلِيلٌ يَخُصُّ جَمِيعَ النِّسَاءِ، كَيْفَ وَالشَّرِيعَةُ طَافِحَةٌ بِلُزُومِ النِّسَاءِ بُيُوتَهَنَّ، وَالِانْكِفَافِ عَنِ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْهَا إِلَّا لِضَرُورَةٍ، عَلَى مَا تَقَدَّمَ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٤٨١، دار الحديث) وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّالتَّاسِعَةُ- فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَذِنَ فِي مَسْأَلَتِهِنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ، فِي حَاجَةٍ تَعْرِضُ، أَوْ مَسْأَلَةٍ يُسْتَفْتَيْنَ فِيهَا، وَيَدْخُلُ فِي ذَلِكَ جَمِيعُ النِّسَاءِ بِالْمَعْنَى، وَبِمَا تَضَمَّنَتْهُ أُصُولُ الشَّرِيعَةِ مِنْ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ كُلُّهَا عَوْرَةٌ، بَدَنُهَا وَصَوْتُهَا، كَمَا تَقَدَّمَ، فَلَا يَجُوزُ كَشْفُ ذَلِكَ إِلَّا لِحَاجَةٍ كَالشَّهَادَةِ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ دَاءٍ يَكُونُ بِبَدَنِهَا، أَوْ سُؤَالِهَا عَمَّا يَعْرِضُ وَتَعَيَّنَ عندها.((الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٥٢٠، دار الحديث)
[15]الثالثة- قوله تعالى: (مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ) الْجَلَابِيبُ جَمْعُ جِلْبَابٍ، وَهُوَ ثَوْبٌ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْخِمَارِ. وَرُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ أَنَّهُ الرِّدَاءُ. وَقَدْ قِيلَ: إِنَّهُ الْقِنَاعُ. وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ الثَّوْبُ الَّذِي يَسْتُرُ جَمِيعَ الْبَدَنِ.(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٣٥٢، دار الحديث)
[16] Ibid.
[17] ثم اختلف أهل التأويل في صفة الإدناء الذي أمرهن الله به فقال بعضهم: هو أن يغطين وجوههن ورءوسهن فلا يبدين منهن إلا عينا واحدة.* ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثني عليّ، قال: ثنا أَبو صالح قال ثني معاوية عن علي عن ابن عباس، قوله (يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لأزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلابِيبِهِنَّ) أمر الله نساء المؤمنين إذا خرجن من بيوتهن في حاجة أن يغطين وجوههن من فوق رءوسهن بالجلابيب ويبدين عينا واحدة.* ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثني محمد بن سعد قال ثني أَبي قال ثني عمي قال: ثني أَبي عن أبيه عن ابن عباس، قوله (يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لأزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلابِيبِهِنَّ … ) إلى قوله (وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا) قال: كانت الحرة تلبس لباس الأمة فأمر الله نساء المؤمنين أن يدنين عليهن من جلابيبهن. وإدناء الجلباب: أن تقنع وتشد على جبينها.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٢، ص ٤٦، دار الفكر)؛الثانية: الحجاب بالبراقع والجلابيب بحيث لايبدو شيء من الوجه والكفين و سائر الجسد و لباس الزينة، فلايري إلا أشخاصهن مستورة من فوق الرأس إلي القدم(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٣، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[18] Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān of Imam al-Qurtubī, vol. 7, pg. 532, Darul Hadīth
[19] الثالثة: الحجاب بالجلابيب وأمثالها مع كشف الوجه والكفين والقدمين(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٤، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[20] وقوله: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ) يقول تعالى ذكره: ولا يُظهرن للناس الذين ليسوا لهن بمحرم زينتهنّ، وهما زينتان: إحداهما: ما خفي وذلك كالخلخال والسوارين والقرطين والقلائد،والأخرى: ما ظهر منها، وذلك مختلف في المعنيّ منه بهذه الآية، فكان بعضهم يقول: زينة الثياب الظاهرة.ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا هارون بن المغيرة، عن الحجاج، عن أبي إسحاق، عن أبي الأحوص، عن ابن مسعود، قال: الزينة زينتان: فالظاهرة منها الثياب، وما خفي: الخَلْخَالان والقرطان والسواران…وقال آخرون: الظاهر من الزينة التي أبيح لها أن تبديه: الكحل، والخاتم، والسواران، والوجه.ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا مروان، قال: ثنا مسلم الملائي، عن سعيد بن جُبير، عن ابن عباس: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال: الكحل والخاتم….حدثنا ابن بشار، قال: ثنا أبو عاصم، قال: ثنا سفيان، عن عبد الله بن مسلم بن هرمز، عن سعيد بن جُبير، في قوله: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال: الوجه والكفّ….وقال آخرون: عنى به الوجه والثياب.*ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا ابن عبد الأعلى، قال: ثنا المعتمر، قال: قال يونس (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال الحسن: الوجه والثياب.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٠، ١١٧-١١٩، دار الفكر)
[21] الثَّالِثَةُ- أَمَرَ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى النِّسَاءَ بِأَلَّا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ لِلنَّاظِرِينَ، إِلَّا مَا اسْتَثْنَاهُ مِنَ النَّاظِرِينَ فِي بَاقِي الْآيَةِ حِذَارًا مِنْ الِافْتِتَانِ، ثُمَّ اسْتَثْنَى، مَا يَظْهَرُ مِنَ الزِّينَةِ، وَاخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِي قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: ظَاهِرُ الزِّينَةِ هُوَ الثِّيَابُ. وَزَادَ ابْنُ جُبَيْرٍ الْوَجْهُ. وَقَالَ سَعِيدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرٍ أَيْضًا وَعَطَاءٌ وَالْأَوْزَاعِيُّ: الْوَجْهُ وَالْكَفَّانِ وَالثِّيَابُ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَقَتَادَةُ وَالْمِسْوَرُ بْنُ مَخْرَمَةَ: ظَاهِرُ الزِّينَةِ هُوَ الْكُحْلُ وَالسِّوَارُ وَالْخِضَابُ إِلَى نِصْفِ الذِّرَاعِ «1» وَالْقِرَطَةُ وَالْفَتَخُ «2»، وَنَحْوُ هَذَا فَمُبَاحٌ أَنْ تُبْدِيَهُ الْمَرْأَةُ لِكُلِّ مَنْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا مِنَ النَّاسِ.(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٦، ص ٥١٨، دار الحديث)
[22] وَقَالَ (4) : {وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} أَيْ: لَا يُظهرْنَ شَيْئًا مِنَ الزِّينَةِ لِلْأَجَانِبِ، إِلَّا مَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ.وَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: كَالرِّدَاءِ وَالثِّيَابِ. يَعْنِي: عَلَى مَا كَانَ يَتَعَانَاهُ نِسَاءُ الْعَرَبِ، مِنَ المِقْنعة الَّتِي تُجَلِّل ثِيَابَهَا، وَمَا يَبْدُو مِنْ أَسَافِلِ الثِّيَابِ فَلَا حَرَجَ عَلَيْهَا فِيهِ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ. وَنَظِيرُهُ فِي زِيِّ النِّسَاءِ مَا يَظْهَرُ مِنْ إِزَارِهَا، وَمَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ. وَقَالَ بِقَوْلِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ: الْحَسَنُ، وَابْنُ سِيرِينَ، وَأَبُو الْجَوْزَاءِ، وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ النَّخَعي، وَغَيْرُهُمْ. وَقَالَ الْأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَير، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: {وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} قَالَ: وَجْهُهَا وَكَفَّيْهَا وَالْخَاتَمُ(تفسير ابن كثير، ج ٣، ص ٣٤٨، دار الحديث)
[23] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 426, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[24] Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān of Imam al-Qurtubī, vol. 7, pg. 519, Darul Hadīth
[25] وأما الدرجة الثالثة: اأني خروجهن مستورة الأبدان من الرأس إلي القدم مع كشف الوجه والكفين بشرط الأمن من الفتنة…فاختلف فيه كلمات القوم، منهم من رخص فيها بشرط الأمن من الفتنة، و منهم من لم يرخص فيها إلا عند الاضطرار(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٦٠، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[26] Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, Surah an-Nūr, verse 31
[27] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 467, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[28] Although the Hanafī position seems to have some room for discussion, in our times the final position holds to be the same as the other three schools of thought. For a detailed discussion on this matter, refer to the following link:http://www.deoband.org/2009/04/fiqh/miscellaneous/the-niqab-and-its-obligation-in-the-hanafi-madhhab/ For information regarding the position of the other three madhāhib, refer to:Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 460-467, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah Also see:Ma’ariful Quran, ” The Third Degree of Islamic Legal Hijab About Which Jurists Differ “, Surah al-Ahzab:53
[29] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 469, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[30] Sunan at-Tirmidhī, 990, The Book Janāiz (Funerals)

Baby Showers and Bridal Showers

Q: Baby showers. Is there a fatwa that disallows it or does the Quran expressly forbid it? Please substantiate with some scholarly backing for the enlightenment of the sisters.

A: Islam is a religion that is complete and perfect in every respect and it provides a person with guidance in all spheres of his life. From the time the child is conceived till the time he is ushered into the world, and through the various stages of childhood, adolescence and old age which follow, Islam guides a person as to how he should lead his private, domestic and social life with honour and dignity. Even during happy occasions such as marriage celebrations or sad occasions like divorce or death, a person is not left to himself to decide which path he should adopt and what direction he should take. Rather, Islam guides him every step of the way and teaches him how to conduct himself when alone and when interacting with people. In essence, there is no religion that is parallel to Islam in offering direction to man and showing him the path towards success.

Allah Ta’ala has commanded us to adhere to the Mubaarak Sunnah of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and to emulate his Mubaarak lifestyle in all dimensions of our lives. Allah Ta’ala states:

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّـهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّـهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِر ﴿الأحزاب: ٢١﴾

Indeed there is in the Messenger of Allah Ta’ala a beautiful example for the one who hopes in Allah Ta’ala and the Final Day

When we have been commanded by Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) to follow the Mubaarak lifestyle of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) in order to gain salvation and success, then we need to examine whether such practices existed during the Mubaarak lifetime of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and were practised by him and his illustrious Sahaabah (Radiyallahu Anhum). The way of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and his illustrious Sahaabah (Radiyallahu Anhum) is the gauge to determine whether a practice is acceptable or not in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.

The occasion on which one is blessed with a child is undoubtedly one of great happiness and joy. On this occasion, people generally come to see the new born baby and offer gifts. There is no problem with this. However, to arrange a formal function or party in the manner where people are invited to come and view the new born baby is a practice that was not in vogue during the Mubaarak era of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and the Sahaabah (Radiyallahu Anhum). Hence we understand that this practice resembles the ways of the kuffaar. Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (Radiyallahu Anhu) reports that Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said:

عن ابن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم (سنن أبي داود رقم 4033)

The one who emulates a people will be counted from amongst them (in the sight of Allah Ta’ala)

Furthermore, besides the various sins that generally take place such as intermingling between the sexes, making an expression of one’s gifts and doing things for show, music, photography, taking pictures of the baby, etc, a major problem found in such functions (be they baby showers, bridal showers or any other function of a similar nature) is that those who are invited to the function are expected to offer gifts to the newborn baby. Hence, those who attend feel obliged to contribute something to the occasion so that they are not regarded as miserly by others and their respect is not tarnished. One feels compelled to offer a gift even if he does not wish to give anything. This expectation of people and subtle pressure on them to bring gifts has resulted in this function becoming a sophisticated form of begging. 

Another major problem in these functions is that those who give gifts (in baby showers, bridal showers or any other function of a similar nature) expect the recipients of the gifts to return the favour by also giving them gifts when they are blessed with a child. Such an intention at the time of giving gifts goes against the very spirit and core of the Islamic teaching. There is no sincerity found in such gifting. Hence, the Qur’an has prohibited giving gifts with the hope of receiving exchanges. Allah Ta’ala states:

وَلَا تَمْنُنْ تَسْتَكْثِرُ ﴿المدثر :٦﴾

And bestow not favours so that you may receive more. 

In light of the above, it is clear that these functions are not in conformity with the Islamic spirit and Islamic teachings. Hence, one should not attend such functions.

And Allah Ta’ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)

Q: Does having a digital rectal exam break one’s wudhu?

I would also like to know is it the same hukm for male and female, and would it be permissible for a male doctor or a non muslim female doctor to do this on a muslim female.

A digital rectal examination (or exam) is used to see if you might have a prostate problem or prostate cancer. It involves your doctor or nurse feeling your prostate through the wall of the back passage (rectum).
The doctor or nurse will ask you to lie on your side on an examination table, with your knees brought up towards your chest. They will slide a finger gently into your back passage. They’ll wear gloves and put some gel on their finger to make it more comfortable.

ANS:

The confounded “rectal exam” will nullify wudhu as well as the fast.

It is not permissible for a woman to submit to such an immoral
examination by a male doctor. If such an exam is imperative, then she
must find a female physician. There are many non-Muslim female
doctors available.

Breastfeeding Improves IQ

A study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows that breastfed infants tested 5.2 IQ points higher than formula fed infants, for a comprehensive study involving 11 different studies and over 7000 children.
The study was published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and was performed by University of Kentucky nutritionist James Anderson.
“Our study confirms that breast-feeding is accompanied by about a five-points higher IQ than in bottle-fed infants,” Anderson said.
Within that increase, Anderson and associates were able to separate the benefits from mother-infant bonding from the purely nutritional benefits of human milk.
“Our best estimates are that maternal bonding and the decision to breast-feed account for about 40 percent of that increase, but that 60 percent — 3.2 points — are related to the actual nutritional value of the breast milk,” he said.
The link between breast-feeding and brain development has been well established in recent years, but the reasons for it remain controversial. Some researchers believe the link is based on the fact that well-educated, wealthier women breast-feed far more than poor and less educated women. Consequently, breast-fed children will be found to test better for all the reasons that wealthier children from high social classes test better on standardized tests. But others believe there are chemicals in breast milk that encourage brain development, and that those chemicals are now absent in formula. In particular, extensive research is under way into the effects of several Omega-3 fatty acids – docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) – that are prevalent in breast milk but absent in infant formula.
Therefore Anderson’s group weighed and subtracted 15 factors from their study, such as maternal smoking and education, birth weight, birth order and family income. After all these factors were removed, the researchers still found that breast-fed babies tested 3.1 IQ points higher than formula-fed babies!
Among the rights of infants is that the mother breast-feeds her baby. Breast-feeding her baby is incumbent. It is not permissible for a mother to deny her baby this Allah-given right without a valid reason. Bottle-feeding does not compensate for this violation of the baby’s haqq. Now we see from the above article the benefits of following Allah’s commands. There is Divine Wisdom in all of the commandments of Allah. It is just for us to follow and obey.

Everybody on His Own

By Khalid Baig
Disturbing trends in Western societies today, as also Islam’s own prescription for social security, quite clearly state that men are responsible for the affairs outside the home and the women are responsible for taking care of the home. This division is not a relic of some dark past. It is the only basis on which a healthy society has ever been built and can be built today, writes KHALID BAIG.
My own feeling is that we’ve pushed women too far,” says Dr. T. Berry Brazelton, the 80-year-old Harvard University doctor who is frequently called ‘America’s Pediatrician,’ in a recent interview in the Los Angeles Times.

“We’ve split them in two, and we have not given them back anything to support themselves on either end.” He has witnessed what forcing the women into the workforce and the breakdown of the family have done to the American children.

“I just think our country is in deep, deep trouble,” he agonizes.

Opinion leaders of all persuasions agree. Ask America’s [former] First Lady, Hillary Clinton, who considers herself a champion of women’s and children’s causes. In her 1996 book, It Takes a Village, she offers this assessment:

“… children’s potential lost to spirit-crushing poverty, children’s health lost to unaffordable care, children’s hearts lost in divorce and custody fights, children’s futures lost in an overburdened foster-care system, children’s lives lost to abuse and violence, our society lost to itself as we fail our children.”

This is a society in which, by her account:

“…homicide and suicide kill almost seven thousand children every year; one in four of all children are born to unmarried mothers, many of whom are children themselves; and 135,000 children bring guns to school each day. Children in every social stratum suffer from abuse, neglect, and preventable emotional problems.”

She also approvingly quotes:

“If you bungle raising your children, I don’t think whatever else you do matters very much.”

It is obvious that America as a nation, has bungled this thoroughly.

Welcome to the dark side of ‘Women’s Emancipation.’ Today women are free in America. Free from the protection of a home and the support of a husband who would be responsible to provide for them. They are on their own. In turn, the children have been freed from the rigidities of the traditional home, where father and mother provide for them, take care of them, and guide them.

The children are also on their own. Just in case they do not like it, the society has been experimenting with all kinds of poultry farms – day care, they call them – to take care of them. Things have gone so wrong for so long that everyone has lost all hope that the society can rectify it completely and retrace its steps. Hillary Clinton admits:

“My personal wish, that every child have an intact, dependable family, will likely remain a wish.”

So, she is just trying to build a better poultry farm with the help of the whole village. Dr. Brazelton knows that the children need the mother at home:

“I think you are giving a gift to the child when you stay home with him as long as you can.”

However, he knows that it cannot be very long, as, to stay home, “being just a mother,” is not good enough anymore. He knows the psychological crisis faced by the stay-at-home mothers, so he pleads with everyone to do as much as they can.

Now contrast this with the U.N. edict that the women in the rest of the world, especially the Muslim world, must take up all kinds of jobs outside the home; that the goal should be their total economic independence. In other words, women must be forced outside the home so they are no longer available to take care of the children within the home. They must be “liberated” from the home, so they can enjoy the same fruits of ‘emancipation’ as the women are ‘enjoying’ in the U.S.

The destruction of the family in America, or the West in general, was not planned. It just happened as a logical result of the materialistic, hedonistic, Godless civilizational values that have gripped these societies. But the U.N. decree that the rest of the world must follow the same disastrous path, is something else. It is as if a person lost an eye to horseplay, and now wants everyone else to voluntarily have an eye removed!

It is unconscionable that we should be answering such chicanery with apologetics of the kind that normally begin with, “Islam also allows women to,” as in, “Islam also allows women to work outside the home.” Yes, it does in case of necessity, but that is beside the point. The real issue is that Islam frees a wife from the burden to provide for the family. It is solely the husband’s responsibility. In return, wife’s main responsibility is to stay home and take care of the children.

The primary field of women’s endeavor is the home, sweet home. And this has to be stated without hesitation or apology. The Qur’an says: “And stay quietly in your homes.” [Al-Ahzab, 33:33]. And the Prophet, peace be upon him, said:

“The wife is responsible for taking care of the home of her husband, and she will be accountable for those given in her charge.” [Bukhari, Muslim]

This is also the most rewarding job that anyone can think of. The Prophet, peace be upon him, assured the woman who stays home to take care of the children, that she would be with him in paradise. According to another hadith, during pregnancy and the entire period of nursing, the believing mother is like the soldier on active duty. If she dies, she gets the reward reserved for a martyr. Yet another hadith says to the women:

“Take care of the home. That is your Jihad.”

All of these clearly establish the basic division of labor between men and women according to Islam: men are responsible for the affairs outside the home and the women are responsible for taking care of the home. This division is not a relic of some dark past. It is the only basis on which a healthy society has ever been built and can be built today.

The nations that have tried to alter this natural arrangement long enough have nothing but grief and trouble to show for their efforts. And they seem to be groping in the dark, unable to undo the damage and get out of the quagmire.

Is there any sane reason that those who have the Light should follow them on the dark highway to disaster?

It’s sunnah

1. It’s sunnah to marry older women.
2. It’s sunnah to marry a divorcee.
3. It’s sunnah to marry a widow.
4. It’s sunnah to help women in household chores i.e. cooking, cleaning, washing etc.
5. It’s sunnah to put food with your hand in your wife’s mouth as an expression of love. (graded as a form of charity)
6. It’s sunnah to verbally express love, appreciation, and respect to your wife.
7. It’s sunnah to forgive her mistakes.
8. It’s sunnah to keep yourself looking pleasant for your wife.
9. It’s sunnah to try to know the feelings of your wife and console her when she needs it.
10. It’s sunnah to be playful with your wife and spend quality time having fun together. (racing, story-telling, sharing happy occasion with her are some well-known examples)
11. It’s sunnah to recline and relax in your wife’s lap.
12. It’s sunnah to call your wife with beautiful names.
13. It’s sunnah to not disclose her private matters to other family members or friends.
14. It’s sunnah to love and respect her parents.