WOMEN TAKING OFF BURQA OUTSIDE OF HER HOME

Question: regarding the last issue of the majlis there is a hadith regarding a woman not taking off her burqa in any place that is not the home of her husband.
what should we take from this hadith?
does it mean that when a woman goes out with her husband and the husband is with the men in one room and the ladies are in another room the wife should still sit in burqa?
does it mean that women that work in hospitals or schools where there is purdah, they still have to wear their burqas while teaching etc.?
what should we understand from the hadith?

Answer: The fact that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) cursed the woman who removes her jilbaab in a place other than her home indicates the emphasis of maintaining hijaab. If a woman visits friends and relatives, there is the possibility of ghair mahram male relatives or her friend’s husband accidentally coming within view. This happens often in homes, especially small houses. The ghair mahram’s gaze is sure to fall on her gaudy or adorned dress which she wears under her jilbaab. The Fuqaha have explicitly ruled that it is not permissible for a man to look at any garment of a woman. Gaudy feminine garments also excite passion in man. For this reason it is Makrooh for a man to drink water from a glass if he is aware that a woman has drunk from it, and vice versa.
A man whose eyes accidentally fall on the beautiful dress of a woman even from behind, is sure to be passionately excited. Most men who lack Taqwa, instead of reciting Ta-awwuz and Wa La Houla, will begin fantasizing about the woman. As it is, his own wife is ‘stale’ for him. Even if he did not see the face of the woman, her dress is likely to influence his heart. It is therefore not permissible for a woman to be careless by removing her jilbaab when she visits other homes. She can remove her Niqaab, but she should not strut about in the homes of other people without her jilbaab. Rasulullah (sallallahu layhi wasallam) said: “A woman advances (comes forward) in the form of shaitaan, and retreats in the form of shaitaan.” In other words, whether a man sees a woman from the front or from behind, shaitaan is eveready to excite his nafsaani passion. Hence, as far as possible, a woman should not unnecessarily remove her outer-cloak when she is visiting relatives and friends.
In the first place, there is no hijaab in the hospitals and schools of today. It is not permissible for women to work in surroundings where they are unable to observe proper Shar’i hijaab. In a truly Islamic state, the authorities will make proper arrangements for correct observance of hijaab in such places where it is essential to have female staff, e.g. females-only hospitals. Furthermore, every law has exceptions. An exception cannot be cited to undermine the general law.

SALAAT NOT VALID

Once Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) saw a man performing Salaat with his izaar (lower garment) hanging below his ankles. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) instructed him to renew Wudhu and repeat the Salaat. When someone asked the reason for renewal of Wudhu, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that the Salaat was not valid. Allah Ta’ala does not accept a Salaat if the trousers is below the ankles. This is the rule applicable to all haraam acts perpetrated during Salaat. Salaat performed with the clothing of the kuffaar, with jeans, T-shirt, with logos inscribed on the garments, with short sleeves exposing the elbows, with such tight-fitting pants which display the form of the buttocks, etc. is NOT VALID.
Salaat in such a reprehensible manner has to be incumbently repeated. The offensive clothes should be discarded. If deficiency of Imaan does not allow the criminal to completely abandon the haraam western/kuffaar dress style, then at least he should ensure that when performing Salaat he is dressed correctly so that at least his Salaat is not flung back into his face from the heavens like a filthy rag as is mentioned in the Hadith.

REPEAT YOUR SALAAT
Wearing the trousers on or below the ankles is haraam at all times. The sin is aggravated if this haraam style is adopted in Salaat. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had ordered not only the repetition of the Salaat. He had ordered also renewal of Wudhu. The same command will apply to Salaat performed with the devil’s mask (i.e. the corona virus mask). In fact the stricture regarding this mask is more severe in view of the fact that it is accompanied by the kufr belief of disease being contagious, and also because it is in flagrant violation and rejection of Rasulullah’s prohibition of face covering during Salaat.


SALAAT WITH THE MOCK ‘BURQAH’
Question:
I usually wear a half burqah and pants when performing Namaaz. The burqah is just above the waistline. An Apa told me that my Namaaz is not valid with this burqah. She said that I should repeat my Namaaz. Is she correct? What happens with the Namaaz which I had performed in the past with such a burqah?
Answer:
The Apa is 100% correct. With the cloth which in terms of the Shariah is not a burqah, your Namaaz is not valid. For a Muslim female it is shameless for her legs to be exposed. Pants are not sufficient covering for the legs. You should make qadha of your past Namaaz.

JINNAH CAP THE SPECIAL DRESS OF THE FUSSAAQ

Question: Is it permissible to wear the Jinnah Cap, as some people say that young sheep are killed especially to make this cap?

Answer: It is not permissible to wear a Jinnah cap, and not because it is made from very young sheep, but because it is the special headdress of the fussaaq. A Jinnah cap is not an Islamic headdress. It is the headgear of the fussaaq politicians such as Mr. Jinnah. Even Molvis have adopted this item. Our senior ulama who were paragons of piety, detested the Jinnah cap. You should adhere to the simple cloth topi in which there is humility.

ULAMA WEARING WESTERN OR KUFFAR DRESS

Leave alone an Aalim, even an ordinary person – a non-Molwi—is not allowed to wear western or kuffaar clothes. Shirt and pants are kuffaar dress. In view of the fact that among laymen, this type of dress has become widespread, especially in the western world, we shall not brand every Muslim in the west who wears shirt and pants, a faasiq. But, undoubtedly, every Molwi, be he in the west or in a Muslim country, will be labeled a faasiq if he wears shirt and pants. Here in South Africa we never allow a man with shirt and pants to lead the salaat or to even stand in the Musjid to deliver a talk even if he is with the Tabligh Jamaat. He is a disgrace to the Ilm he has acquired. A Molwi who wears shirt and pants needs to be stripped of his molwiyyat. He is a disgrace to Ilm-e-Deen and to the lofty Office of Warathatul Ambiya which he is supposed to occupy. Would this Molvi have attended his dastaarbandi ceremony with a shirt and pants? Let him search his conscience and soul.

If a person has been wearing Islamic garb since childhood as is the case in Pakistan, and then he abandons such garments to adopt kuffaar dress, he will be a faasiq. But if he grew up with shirt and pants, he will not be labeled a faasiq. Nevertheless, the error of such garb will still be pointed out to him and he should be encouraged to switch to Islamic dress.

The fatwa of the mufti who declared shirt and pants jaa-iz is incorrect. The mufti sahib has grievously erred. Instead of bringing people nearer to the Deen, he opens up avenues of fisq and fujoor with such miserable fatwas. May Allah Ta’ala save us from the deceptions of shaitaan.

JANUARY 2, 2005

Wearing nike clothing

Q: Is it permissible to buy and wear Nike products? I know that Nike once put the name of Allah on a shoe, but it was unintentional and they apologized. Also, although Nike represents a Greek god, people don’t believe in the god and only buy the shoe for the style. Bearing this in mind, what is the ruling on Nike products?

A: Before addressing the issue in question, it is necessary for you to understand the parameters and limits of Shari’ah in regard to the topic of preserving one’s Islamic identity as a believer and refraining from imitating the ways of the kuffaar.  Below we will discuss the details which govern this mas’alah.

In Shari’ah, we are commanded to refrain from imitating the ways of the kuffaar and adopting their lifestyle. Imitating the ways of the kuffaar refers to one abandoning his Islamic identity and adopting the identity which is exclusive to the kuffaar. In other words, all those aspects of life (be it religious or worldly related) through which a believer is identified and clearly distinguished from a disbeliever – for a muslim to abandon that and to adopt the ways of the kuffaar amounts to imitating the ways of the kuffaar. Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhuma) reports that Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:

عن ابن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 4033)

The one who imitates a people will be counted among them (in the court of Allah Ta’ala)

Imitating the kuffaar is of different levels.

1. Imitating the kuffaar in their religious beliefs is haraam and amounts to kufr e.g. for a Muslim to subscribe to the belief that Nabi Isa (alaihi salaam) was crucified on the cross.

2. Imitating those signs or symbols that identify with kufr is haraam and amounts to kufr e.g. wearing a cross.

3. Imitating the kuffaar in their religious ceremonies, celebrations or festivals is haraam e.g. for a Muslim to celebrate Diwali, Christmas, Easter, etc. If one participates in the celebration of the kuffaar out of respect for such days, he will become a kaafir. If one participates in a celebration without respecting and honouring their celebration, he will not become a kaafir. However, this action will be haraam.

4. Imitating the kuffaar in their religious attire which is not a symbol of kufr is makrooh-e-tahreemi e.g. for a Muslim to wear an attire that is exclusive to a religious cult (e.g. wearing a saari in our country).

5. Imitating the kuffaar in their culture and lifestyle is also impermissible e.g. imitating them in their tight-fitting and revealing clothing, women wearing men’s clothing and vice versa, men wearing ear-rings, celebrating birthdays, tattooing, women and men freely intermingling, etc.

Wearing such clothes that are not exclusive to the kuffaar, but are instead used by all and sundry e.g. wearing jackets, socks, men wearing formal clothes and women wearing unrevealing dresses is permissible and does not amount to imitating the kuffaar.

Similarly, carrying out those actions or using those items which are not exclusive to the kuffaar but are instead commonly used by all e.g. driving cars, eating and drinking in cups and plates, etc. does not amount to imitating the kuffaar. However, one should refrain from drinking in wine tumblers as this resembles people who drink wine (fujjaar and fussaaq).

As for the clothing that a Muslim should wear, it is preferable that he wear such clothing which has some type of Islamic connotation or is known to be clothing exclusive to Muslims i.e. the clothing of the pious and respectable Muslims.

As far as the issue of Nike is concerned, you should ask yourself whether any Muslim will wear a garment which has the cross emblazoned on it. Obviously, a Muslim will never wear a garment which has a cross on it, whether the cross is on his clothing or on his shoes. The reason why a Muslim will not wear a cross is that he understands that the cross is a sign of kufr and is exclusive to a particular creed (i.e. Christianity). The cross identifies the one who wears it as being part of the same creed.

While the cross is a very obvious sign, there are many other signs which though less obvious are also signs of kufr and identify the one who wears it as being part of the same creed. These symbols have significance for its followers and they are respected and honoured just as the cross is honoured by the Christians.

Among these religious symbols is the symbol of Nike. Encyclopedia Britannica describes Nike in the following words: “Nike, in Greek religion, is the goddess of victory.” It also states that in Rome “she was worshipped from the earliest times. She came to be regarded as the protecting goddess of the state.” The Nike symbol, the swoosh, embodies the spirit of the winged goddess who inspired the most courageous of warriors.

Not long ago, Nike Incorporated apologised in the face of severe protest for putting the name of Allah on sports shoes. First they put the name of Allah on a shoe so that it will be trampled and soiled. Imagine the name of Allah Ta’ala being trampled and kicked around (May Allah Ta’ala save us). Even before the shoe affair, Nike had once erected a billboard which depicted a basketball player. The picture was headlined with the words “They called him Allah.” It is naive to think that these occurrences are mere coincidences. Yet Muslims still feel proud to be associated with Nike and its products.

Why is a basketball player headlined “ALLAH”? Why the name of Allah on shoes? Is it a deliberate attempt to sacrilege and desecrate the name of Allah Ta’ala? The name of Allah Ta’ala on a shoe will surely be trampled, kicked, become soiled with mud or even filth. Allah Forbid! The Qur’an has long ago declared: “…The enmity has become apparent from their mouths, and what their hearts conceal is worse” (3: 118). Often the hatred of the Kuffaar for the Believers becomes manifest from their words and actions. However, we should consider to what extent we support the very people who openly desecrate the name of Allah Ta’ala. If our parents were greatly insulted by any person, will we still support him and add to his coffers? Then what about the name of Allah Ta’ala ? Would we give publicity to those who desecrate our name? Then what about the name of Allah Ta’ala?

And Allah Ta’ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا بِطَانَةً مِّن دُونِكُمْ لَا يَأْلُونَكُمْ خَبَالًا وَدُّوا مَا عَنِتُّمْ قَدْ بَدَتِ الْبَغْضَاءُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَمَا تُخْفِي صُدُورُهُمْ أَكْبَرُ  (آل عمران: ١١٨)

وَلَا تَرۡکَنُوۡۤا اِلَی الَّذِیۡنَ ظَلَمُوۡا فَتَمَسَّکُمُ النَّارُ ۙ وَمَا لَکُمۡ مِّنۡ دُوۡنِ اللّٰهِ مِنۡ اَوۡلِیَآءَ ثُمَّ لَاتُنۡصَرُوۡنَ  (سورة هود: 113)

عن ابن عمر قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من تشبه بقوم فهو منهم.  (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 4033)

أي من شبه نفسه بالكفار مثلا في اللباس وغيره أو بالفساق أو الفجار أو بأهل التصوف والصلحاء الأبرار فهو منهم أي في الإثم والخير قال الطيبي هذا عام في الخلق والخلق والشعار ولما كان الشعار أظهر في الشبه ذكر في هذا الباب (مرقاة شرح مشكاة 8/ 155)

عن عمرو بن الحارث ، أن رجلا دعا عبد الله بن مسعود إلى وليمة ، فلما جاء ليدخل سمع لهوا ، فلم يدخل ، فقال : ما لك رجعت ؟ قال : إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : من كثر سواد قوم فهو منهم ، ومن رضي عمل قوم كان شريكا في عملهم. (إتحاف الخيرة المهرة، الرقم: 3297)

يكفر بوضع قلنسوة المجوس على رأسه على الصحيح إلا لضرورة دفع الحر والبرد وبشد الزنار في وسطه إلا إذا فعل ذلك خديعة في الحرب وطليعة للمسلمين وبقوله المجوس خير مما أنا فيه يعني فعله … وبخروجه إلى نيروز المجوس لموافقته معهم فيما يفعلون في ذلك اليوم وبشرائه يوم النيروز شيئا لم يكن يشتريه قبل ذلك تعظيما للنيروز لا للأكل والشرب وبإهدائه ذلك اليوم للمشركين ولو بيضة تعظيما لذلك لا بإجابة دعوة مجوسي حلق رأس ولده وبتحسين أمر الكفار اتفاقا حتى قالوا لو قال ترك الكلام عند أكل الطعام حسن من المجوس أو ترك المضاجعة حالة الحيض منهم حسن فهو كافر كذا في البحر الرائق. (الفتاوى الهندية 2/ 276)

كما أن الإتيان بخاصية الكفر يدل على الكفر فإن من سجد لصنم أو تزيى بزنار أو لبس قلنسوة المجوس يحكم بكفره (الاختيار لتعليل المختار 4/150)

ومن تشبه بالكفار عمدا أو باللعب أو تزيى بزي النصارى أو تزنر بزنار النصارى أو تقلنس بقلنسوة المجوسي أو دخل بيعة أو كنيسة لزيارتها والتبرك بها أو يتبرك ببعض كبار الكفار لتنسكه بزيادات عبادتهم أو بشيء من خواص دينهم يكفر ومن قطع لأئمة الهدى بالجنة كأبي حنيفة ومالك والشافعي فقد أخطأ وكذا الجنيد وأبو يزيد الشبلي ونحوهم من الصالحين (معين المفتي على جواب المستفتي للتمرتاشي 1/219)

وبيع المكعب المفضض للرجل إن ليلبسه يكره لأنه إعانة على لبس الحرام وإن كان إسكافا أمره إنسان أن يتخذ له خفا على زي المجوس أو الفسقة أو خياطا أمره أن يتخذ له ثوبا على زي الفساق يكره له أن يفعل لأنه سبب التشبه بالمجوس والفسقة اهـ (رد المحتار 6/392)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

is permissible to wear a tie in a place where both Muslims and nonMuslims are wearing it

Q. A Mufti says that it is permissible to wear a tie in a place where both Muslims and nonMuslims are wearing it, and that it will not be permissible in a place where only the kuffaar wear it. Is this right? Please comment in detail. The fatwa seems very confusing.

A. It is very confusing because it is a forked tongue fatwa of a fencesitting mufti. Zina, liquor and riba will be haraam in all places whether in a place only kuffaar indulge in these acts of abomination or whether both Muslims and nonMuslims perpetrate these acts of immorality. The mufti has grievously erred.

Instead of bringing Muslims closer to Allah Ta’ala by emphasizing the incumbency of Sunnah attire, and the abomination of kuffaar dress style, the mufti renders the Ummah and Islam the great disservice of widening the gulf between Muslims and their Creator. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said that the one who emulates a people is one of them. One enters the fold of the kuffaar by emulating their useless and superfluous styles. On the other hand, one becomes Allah’s beloved by emulating the Sulaha/Auliya even if one is not among them. A Buzrug said: “I love the Sulaha although I am not one of them. Perhaps by virtue of this love, Allah will reform me.”

The function of a mufti is not to indulge in mental gymnastics and create unnecessary and futile latitude in the ahkaam thereby weakening further the extremely deficient bond which Muslims of this era have with the Deen and with Allah Ta’ala. The obligation of the mufti is to draw Muslims closer to Allah Ta’ala and to cultivate in them a realization of Maut, the Qabr and Qiyaamah. These goals cannever be achieved by encouraging Muslims to adopt the ways, styles and customs of the kuffaar.

It should be understood that kuffaar attitudes accompany kuffaar styles and customs. The one who will wear a tie, will think and behave like a kaafir. There is takabbur and riya in the kuffaar tie whilst there is tawaadhu (humility) in the simple dress style of the Ambiya (Alayhimus salaam), adoption of which is Waajib for Muslims. The mufti should confine technicalities to his Madrasah students during academic discussion, and emphasize to his pupils that the objective of technicalities which appear to provide leeway is never to water down the ahkaam and to eliminate Taqwa. Cultivation of Taqwa is a Qur’aanic and a Sunnah imperative. Minus Taqwa a Muslim is a vagabond, and this is the category into which the molvis and muftis of this era have cast the Ummah with their flapdoodle and flotsam fallacious arguments which are nugatory of the Maqaasid of the Deen.

Adoption of haraam by Muslims does not equate to halaal. Thus, if the crucifix loses its religious significance and both non-Muslims and Muslims wear chains with crosses around their necks, this practice of shirk is not transformed into permissibility. It will forever remain haraam for Muslims to wear crosses around their necks or keep it even concealed in their pockets.

This is the status of the kuffaar tie. It is the symbol of the cross – of the Christian deity hanging on the cross. This was the origin of the tie regardless of the religious significance being divested. E. Quraishi Sabri commenting on the origin of the necktie, said: “Towards the end of the 19th Century, the Europeans omitted from dictionaries and Encyclopaedias the introductory phrase about the necktie being a symbol of the cross … A glance of Encyclopaedias printed before 1898 will confirm this point.” In another report, it is said that the practice of the necktie started on the insistence of the Pope in the year 1790 and that by 1850 all Christian nations had accepted and implemented this order of the Pope.

Regardless of the tie no longer having religious significance, and regardless of the assumption that it never symbolized the cross, the fundamental fact is that it is a superfluous item of kuffaar dress exhibiting stupidity, ujub (self-esteem), takabbur (pride) and riya (show). There is absolutely no goodness and no worldly benefit in wearing this moronic dress atrocity of the kuffaar. It is a glaring example of Tashabbuh Bil Kuffaar (emulating the kuffaar) which is haraam, and which even has the effect of kufr. Preferring any specific custom/practice of the kuffaar is also kufr.

Tashabbuh bin nisaa’ (emulating females) is haraam for men. Men who imitate women in any manner are maloon (on whom settle the curse of Allah) according to the Hadith. Even if a man emulates the dress style of a Muslim woman, he will be mal-oon. Will the mufti condone Muslim men wearing abayas/ burqahs? What if in a place most Muslim men begin wearing abayas because it has developed into a kuffaar fashion? And, this is not farfetched. Men are nowadays even walking in public with female panties. Will it then be permissible for Muslim males to wear burqahs? Allah’s la’nat is on such men who perpetrate Tashabbuh bin nisaa. To a greater degree will the la’nat settle on Muslim men committing Tashabbuh bil kuffaar. After all, Muslim women have Imaan whilst the kuffaar are bereft of Imaan.

The attitude of halaalizing kuffaar dress styles and other superfluous and stupid practices on the basis of the dress style having gained popular acceptance by both nonMuslims and Muslims is absolutely putrid and satanic. With the passage of time the entire Sunnah becomes eroded and even displaced for the adoption of kuffaar culture which brings along with it all the attitudes, thinking and concepts of the kuffaar. It is this creeping disease which has made praying in churches and standing in the ranks with kuffaar priests and pundits acceptable. That is why there are characters of the ilk of reverend Bham and MJC carrion halaalizing sheikhs who accept and participate in kuffaar acts of worship.

Will a Muslim with his kurtah on wear a tie? There is consensus of all and sundry, including the mufti who halaalizes the tie, that no Muslim wearing a kurtah will put on a tie while dressed in a kurtah. But if he is dressed in western attire or a suit, then without hesitation he will don the kuffaar tie? Why this difference? Why will he wear a tie with a western shirt, but not with a kurtah? There is no need to even answer this question. Western dress comes with its effects and attitudes of kibr, ujub and riya. It is an acceptable dress for a man who wants to visit a casino, a brothel, a gambling den and any evil haunt. On the contrary, Islamic dress prevents a Muslim from frequenting these dens of Iblees. Wearing the kuffaar tie of shirk is haraam. The mufti has grievously erred in providing leeway for its adoption.

Playing sports with people whose satr is exposed

Q: Is it permissible to play soccer or any other sport with others while their satr is exposed?

A: It is not permissible for one to play a game with people who are dressed in this manner. Even though one is clad correctly and one’s satr is covered, it is definite that during the game, one’s sight will fall on the satr area of those who are not clad correctly due to which one will become sinful. Apart from this, by remaining in the company of such people and engaging in this type of sport with them, one will be condoning their sin, and hence one will be party to their sin in the sight of Allah Ta’ala.

And Allah Ta’ala (الله تعالى) knows best.

وَتَعَاوَنُوْا عَلَی الْبِرِّ وَ التَّقْوٰی وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوْا عَلَی الْاِثْمِ وَ الْعُدْوَانِ (المائدة: ٢)

عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه عن أبيه أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا ينظر الرجل إلى عورة الرجل ولا المرأة إلى عورة المرأة ولا يفضي الرجل إلى الرجل في ثوب واحد ولا تفضي المرأة إلى المرأة في الثوب الواحد (صحيح مسلم، الرقم: 338)

عن علي رضي الله عنه أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال لا تبرز فخذك ولا تنظرن إلى فخذ حي ولا ميت (سنن أبي داود، الرقم: 3140)

عن عمرو بن الحارث أن رجلا دعا عبد الله بن مسعود إلى وليمة فلما جاء ليدخل سمع لهوا فلم يدخل فقال ما لك رجعت قال إني سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من كثر سواد قوم فهو منهم ومن رضي عمل قوم كان شريكا في عملهم (إتحاف الخيرة المهرة، الرقم: 3297)

عن عبيد بن عمير قال: صليت خلف عمر رضي الله عنه صلاة الغداة فقنت فيها بعد الركوع وقال في قنوته: اللهم إنا نستعينك ونستغفرك , ونثني عليك الخير كله ونشكرك ولا نكفرك ونخلع ونترك من يفجرك اللهم إياك نعبد ولك نصلي , ونسجد وإليك نسعى ونحفد نرجو رحمتك ونخشى عذابك إن عذابك بالكفار ملحق (شرح معاني الآثار، الرقم: 1475)

Answered by:

Mufti Zakaria Makada

Checked & Approved:

Mufti Ebrahim Salejee (Isipingo Beach)

Isbaal — The Ruling of Wearing One’s Garment Below the Ankles

Islam Reigns

[By Muhammad ibn Suleman Chothia]

Our discussion will entail the following:

1. Introduction
2. Ahadith with prohibition due to pride
3. Ahadith with general prohibition (without mention of pride)
4. Aathaar (Narrations) of the Sahabah (radhiyallahu anhum)
5. The Grace of our Role Model’s garment ﷺ
6. Misconceptions and their clarifications

Introduction

Allah Ta’ala in enumerating His gifts upon us said, [Surah Al-A’raaf: 26]

One of the interpretations of “clothing of righteousness” is clothing which shows humility. (Qurtubi Vol.9 Pg.186, Ruhul Ma’aani Vol.9 Pg.72)

Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Whoever wears a garment of pride and vanity in this world, Allah will clothe him in a garment of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection, then set it ablaze.” (Sunan Ibn Majah #3607)

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Eat, give charity and clothe yourselves, without being extravagant, and without pride.”…

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Is wearing the Niqab/Pardah Fardh or Sunnah?

QUESTION
Assalamu Alaikum Respected Mufti Saheb. I would like Mufti Saheb to please respond to this. A few girls were told about the obligation of covering and wearing pardah. An Aalim of the town told these girls that it is not Fardh and a must, it is a sunnah. He even contacted Muftis that also say its sunnah. We would appreciate Mufti Saheb response and advice on what to do. Jazakallah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Please refer to the following link to find a detailed response on the above query:

http://www.askimam.org/public/question_detail/28588

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mahmood Suliman

Student Darul Iftaa
Gaborone, Botswana

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

Where does it say in the Quran that women must observe Hijab?

My Question is related to Hijab..I want to know the proper Defination of Hijab Because in different areas of the world Hijab is Defined in different way.some of women cover full body except their eyes and some cover their whole busy except their face. So i just need to know what is proper defination of Hijab in Qur’an.If it is to cover all the body except eyes then why scholar like Zakir Naik who is firm believer of Qur’an is going on the Different track.(Cover the whole body except face).

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.Sister in Islam,It is encouraging to note your zeal in seeking clarity regarding such an issue. Since the rulings of Hijāb are a very delicate matter, we feel that it is important to first provide some introductory points before answering your specific query. The Purpose of HijābFirst and foremost, it is of absolute importance that one understands the social structure Islam attempts to establish within a Muslim society in regards to the intermingling of men and women. Throughout the Quran we find many verses that point to this very fact. Allah Ta’ālā says in the Holy Quran:وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا And do not even go near fornication. It is indeed a shame and an evil way to follow.[1]He the Almighty says in another verse:وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّAnd say to the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment.[2]Expounding on this message, the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:كُتِبَ عَلَى ابْنِ آدَمَ نَصِيبُهُ مِنَ الزِّنَا، مُدْرِكٌ ذَلِكَ لَا مَحَالَةَ، فَالْعَيْنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا النَّظَرُ، وَالْأُذُنَانِ زِنَاهُمَا الِاسْتِمَاعُ، وَاللِّسَانُ زِنَاهُ الْكَلَامُ، وَالْيَدُ زِنَاهَا الْبَطْشُ، وَالرِّجْلُ زِنَاهَا الْخُطَا، وَالْقَلْبُ يَهْوَى وَيَتَمَنَّى، وَيُصَدِّقُ ذَلِكَ الْفَرْجُ وَيُكَذِّبُهُ Allah has written for the children of Adam their share of zina which he commits inevitably. The zina of the eyes is the sight (to gaze at a forbidden thing), the zina of the ears is to hear, the zina of the tongue is the talk, the zina of the hands is to touch (that which is forbidden), the zina of the feet is to take steps (towards that which is forbidden) and the heart wishes and desires and the private parts testify all this or deny it.[3]It is clear from the above that the overall purpose behind establishing laws pertaining to separation between men and women is simply to protect their chastity and to establish a society wherein all doors leading to immorality and indecency are closed off right from its roots. Similarly, the hijāb is also a mechanism used to further these ideals by becoming an instrument that hinders zinā and all of its malevolent forms.Women and Today’s SocietyIn a society dictated by slogans of liberty and justice, a new generation has been born that thrives off of freedom of expression. This leads some to believe that the hijāb is anti-progressive, but such a notion is far from reality. Allah Ta’ālā has created women in this world with an alluring beauty that seizes the hearts of men and brings forth emotions of pure love and infatuation. It is for this reason that women continue to be exploited today through private and commercial means.It is also no secret that societies today are brimming with news concerning cases of rape and sexual assault. In a society where social acceptance through superficial means of one’s outer beauty has become mainstream, it is of no surprise that such would be the end result. As a premonition to such an outcome, the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) warned us in the following words:صِنْفَانِ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ لَمْ أَرَهُمَا، قَوْمٌ مَعَهُمْ سِيَاطٌ كَأَذْنَابِ الْبَقَرِ يَضْرِبُونَ بِهَا النَّاسَ، وَنِسَاءٌ كَاسِيَاتٌ عَارِيَاتٌ مُمِيلَاتٌ مَائِلَاتٌ… Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, who would incline others (towards evil) and themselves would be inclined (towards it)…[4] Through the tenets of Islam we form a stabilized society that protects women from all avenues that may lead to their mistreatment and exploitation. Only through practice can one see the respect a woman holds who is garbed from head to toe in clothes that protect her beauty and chastity. It is a sign of honor, dignity, and iman that brings to light the revered status of women in the eyes of Allah the Almighty.Difference between Satr and HijābWhen one hears the word hijāb, it is often assumed that the laws pertaining to it are the same as the laws of satr (the concealing of which is obligatory for everyone – legally, naturally and rationally). As a matter of fact, the laws of satr have remained an obligation from the very beginning, in all religious codes of the noble prophets and not only from the advent of Islam.[5] It is an injunction stemming from the natural disposition of insān that shows the intrinsic qualities of hayā (shame and modesty) that existed from the very inception of humankind. One can see the example of such qualities in the story Ādam and Hawā (alaihimas salam) as they hastened to cover themselves upon seeing their bare selves revealed[6]. Similarly, we find such an attribute in the story of Musā (‘alaihis salam) and the two girls who were fetching water from a well. Whilst one was walking towards Musā (alaihi salam), she treaded in a manner showing complete shame and modesty. Allah Ta’ālā revealed this quality in the following words:فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ Then one of the two women came to him, walking in a manner showing hayā.[7]On the other hand, the laws of hijāb came about much after during the latter half of the prophethood of Nabi (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam).[8] As such, laws regarding covering oneself in private and public are different from the laws of hijāb that pertain more to rulings that require women to conceal themselves in the presence of non-mahram men[9].Consider an example from the following hadīth:عَنْ نَبْهَانَ، مَوْلَى أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ، أَنَّهُ حَدَّثَهُ أَنَّ أُمَّ سَلَمَةَ، حَدَّثَتْهُ أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ عِنْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَيْمُونَةَ قَالَتْ: فَبَيْنَا نَحْنُ عِنْدَهُ أَقْبَلَ ابْنُ أُمِّ مَكْتُومٍ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ وَذَلِكَ بَعْدَ مَا أُمِرْنَا بِالحِجَابِ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: احْتَجِبَا مِنْهُ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ أَلَيْسَ هُوَ أَعْمَى لاَ يُبْصِرُنَا وَلاَ يَعْرِفُنَا؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَفَعَمْيَاوَانِ أَنْتُمَا أَلَسْتُمَا تُبْصِرَانِهِ. It is narrated by Nabhān the freed slave of Umm Salamah(radiyallahu ‘anha) that Umm Salamah (radiyallahu ‘anha) narrated to him, that she and Maymunah (radiyallahu ‘anha) were with the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), she said: “So when we were with him, Ibn Umm Maktum (radiyallahu ‘anhu) came, and he entered upon him, and that was after veiling had been ordered for us. So the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Veil yourselves from him.’ So I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is he not blind such that he cannot see us or recognize us?’ So the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: ‘Are you two blind such that you cannot see him?'” One point of consideration is the fact that the addressees of this command of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) were none other than two of the Umm al-Mu’minīn (mother of the believers), Sayyidatuna Umm Salamah and Sayyidatuna Maymūnah (radiyallahu ‘anhuma). If the blessed wives of the Holy Prophet (salllahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), who were at the pinnacle of piety and modesty were commanded to conceal themselves from men, then what can we say about the women of today who live in an era where people vie for social standing by sacrificing their modesty for the sake of public acceptance?Now that we have understood that the laws of satr are not only different, but existed before the laws of hijāb, we will commence with the discussion of Quranic texts relating to the injunctions of hijāb.The Degrees of HijābWhen taking a look at the various verses dealing with the injunction of hijāb, one can divide these verses into three levels, or “degrees”, of hijāb.-The First Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah al-Ahzāb, verse 53:وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّAnd when you ask anything from them (the blessed wives of the Prophet), ask them from behind a curtain. That is better for the purity of your hearts and their hearts.This verse deals with the first degree of hijāb which discusses concealment of women in their own homes. This can further be substantiated by the following verse:وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَىAnd remain in your homes, and do not display (your) beauty as it used to be displayed in the days of earlier ignorance.[10]This degree of hijāb encourages women to stay in their homes and conceal themselves and their beauty from the fitnah the lurks outside the four walls of her home. This means that they should not allow anyone outside of their homes to see any portion of their body, whether it be the face or any other part of the body.[11] Furthermore, this points to the fact that women should try their best to remain in their homes unless there is a need to go out as there is a danger to their chastity and is a means of fitnah for her.[12] The following hadīth points out to this fact:عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، قَالَ: الْمَرْأَةُ عَوْرَةٌ، فَإِذَا خَرَجَتْ اسْتَشْرَفَهَا الشَّيْطَانُ. It is narrated that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “The woman is one who should be concealed, so when she goes out, the Shaitan seeks to tempt her.”[13] Although the addressees of these verses are the blessed wives of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), the injunctions related to them are common to all Muslim women as pointed out by many great muffassirūn (exegetes) such as Imam al-Qurtubi in his famous tafsīr, Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān.[14]-The Second Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah al-Ahzāb, verse 53:يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لِأَزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ O prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers that they should draw down their jilbāb (shawls) over them.Herein mentioned is the second degree of hijāb. This level of hijāb deals with how women should conceal themselves when they have a need to leave their house. The jilbāb here actually refers to a piece of clothing large enough that it covers the entire body from head to toe.[15] The method of dawning the jilbāb is a point of contention amongst the ‘ūlamā; Imam Qurtubi mentions in his tafsīr: وَاخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِي صُورَةِ إِرْخَائِهِ، فَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَعَبِيدَةُ السَّلْمَانِيُّ: ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَلْوِيَهُ الْمَرْأَةُ حَتَّى لَا يَظْهَرَ مِنْهَا إِلَّا عَيْنٌ وَاحِدَةٌ تُبْصِرُ بِهَا. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ أَيْضًا وَقَتَادَةُ: ذَلِكَ أَنْ تَلْوِيَهُ فَوْقَ الْجَبِينِ وَتَشُدَّهُ، ثُمَّ تَعْطِفُهُ عَلَى الْأَنْفِ، وَإِنْ ظَهَرَتْ عَيْنَاهَا لَكِنَّهُ يَسْتُرُ الصَّدْرَ وَمُعْظَمَ الْوَجْهِ. وَقَالَ الْحَسَنُ: تُغَطِّي نِصْفَ وَجْهِهَا. People have differed in regards to the method of dawning it (the jilbāb). Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) and ‘Abīdah as-Salmānī (rahimahullah) state: It means to wrap it up in such a way that everything is concealed except that (the area of) one eye is left open for her to see with. Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) (in another narration) and Qatādah (rahimahullah) say: It means to wrap it up above the forehead and to fasten it, then to fold it till above the nose even if both eyes are left open; although, she will have to cover her chest and majority of her face. Hasan (rahimahullah) says: She will cover half of her face.[16]Similar narrations have been mentioned in other books of tafāsīr as well.[17]From this we can clearly see that the mufassirūn and great figures of the past such as Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) consider that the dawning of the jilbāb for women includes the covering of the face. This is to the extent that there are narrations of leaving only one eye open as well. To substantiate this further, Imam Qurtubi also states under the tafsīr of this verse:لَمَّا كَانَتْ عَادَةُ الْعَرَبِيَّاتِ التَّبَذُّلَ، وَكُنَّ يَكْشِفْنَ وُجُوهَهُنَّ كَمَا يَفْعَلُ الْإِمَاءُ، وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ دَاعِيَةً إِلَى نَظَرِ الرِّجَالِ إِلَيْهِنَّ، وَتَشَعُّبِ الْفِكْرَةِ فِيهِنَّ، أَمَرَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَأْمُرَهُنَّ بِإِرْخَاءِ الْجَلَابِيبِ عَلَيْهِنَّ إِذَا أَرَدْنَ الْخُرُوجَ إِلَى حَوَائِجِهِنَّ Since it was the habit of the Arab women to display their beauty as they would reveal their faces like the female slaves, and since such an action would lead to other men looking at them and filling their minds with thoughts of those women, Allah Ta’ālā commanded the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) to instruct the (Muslim) women to hang down their shawls over them whenever they would have a desire to go out for their needs.[18] -The Third Degree-Allah Ta’ālā says in Surah an-Nūr, verse 31:وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَى جُيُوبِهِنَّ And say to the believing women that they must lower their gazes and guard their private parts, and must not expose their adornment (i.e. places of beauty), except that which appears thereof, and must wrap their bosoms with their shawls…This verse discusses the third and final degree of hijāb, which deals with hijāb of the second degree along with an exception to reveal certain portions of the body.[19] The meaning of this verse is apparent; a women is not allowed to display her beauty and she should cover herself with her shawl. Although, scholars differ as to what the words “except that which appears thereof” refers to. Many mufassirūn such as Imam at-Tabarī[20], Imam al-Qurtubī[21], and Imam Ibn Kathīr[22] have discussed the different narrations and opinions regarding this issue in detail. Mufti Shafī ‘Uthmānī has provided a concise summary of the differences in his book Ahkām al-Qurān in the following words:و حاصل الكلام في تفسير ما ظهر أنه مختلف فيه بين الصحابة والتابعين فعبد الله بن مسعود و من تابعه فسروه بالثياب و الجلباب، و علي ذلك فلا حجة فيه لمن استثني الوجه والكفين عن الحجاب…و عبد الله ابن عباس و عبد الله بن عمر و من تابعهما فسروا قوله تعالي: ولا يبدين زينتهن إلا ما ظهر منها، بقولهم: إنه الوجه والكفان. وهو محتمل المعنيين، الأول: أنه تفسير للزينة التي نهين عن إبدائها، فعلي هذا رجع هذا القول أيضا إلي معني قول ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه، فلم يكن الوجه والكفان من مستثنيات، والمعني الثاني: أنه تفسير لما ظهر، وعلي هذا الأحتمال كان الوجه والكفان مستثنيان من الحجابThe summary of the differences regarding the tafsīr of “that which appears thereof” is that a difference of opinion exists between the Sahabah and Tābi’īn themselves. ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu) and those who are of his opinion say that it refers to (their) clothes and the jilbāb. According to this opinion, there is no room for those who exempt the face and the hands from hijāb…’Abdullah bin ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) and ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) interpret the words “and must not expose their adornment, except that which appears thereof” as meaning the face and the hands. This tafsīr holds two possibilities. The first possibility: This (face and hands) is the tafsīr for the word “adornment” from which women have been forbidden to display. According to this tafsīr, in meaning it will be the same as the interpretation of Ibn Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu); therefore, the hands and face will not be exempt (from the hijāb). The second possibility: This is the tafsīr for “that which appears thereof”. According to this possibility, the face and the hands will be exempt from the hijāb.[23]In more simple terms, the verses according to each interpretation will mean:(1) According to the tafsīr of Ibn Mas’ūd (radiyallahu ‘anhu): And (they) must not expose their adornment, except their outer garments (e.g. their jilbāb).(2) According to the tafsīr of Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhuma): And (they) must not expose their adornment, except their hands and faces.It is important to take note that this discussion only pertains to the interpretation of this verse and not the ruling for the hijāb itself. Clarification on Women Exposing Their FaceOne may conclude through this that there remains scope for women to expose their face as it is a valid tafsīr of this verse. In order clear this misconception, we will expound with the following points:(1) After discussing the various opinions, Imam Qurtubī says in his tafsīr:قَالَ ابْنُ عَطِيَّةَ: وَيَظْهَرُ لِي بِحُكْمِ أَلْفَاظِ الْآيَةِ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ مَأْمُورَةٌ بِأَلَّا تُبْدِيَ وَأَنْ تَجْتَهِدَ فِي الْإِخْفَاءِ لِكُلِّ مَا هُوَ زِينَةٌ، وَوَقَعَ الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ فِيمَا يَظْهَرُ بِحُكْمِ ضَرُورَةِ حَرَكَةٍ فِيمَا لَا بُدَّ مِنْهُ، أَوْ إِصْلَاحِ شَأْنٍ وَنَحْوِ ذَلِكَ. فَ”- مَا ظَهَرَ” عَلَى هَذَا الْوَجْهِ مِمَّا تُؤَدِّي إِلَيْهِ الضَّرُورَةُ فِي النِّسَاءِ فَهُوَ الْمَعْفُوُّ عَنْهُ. قُلْتُ: هَذَا قَوْلٌ حَسَنٌ، إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَمَّا كَانَ الْغَالِبُ مِنَ الْوَجْهِ وَالْكَفَّيْنِ ظُهُورُهُمَا عَادَةً وَعِبَادَة..فَيَصْلُحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ الِاسْتِثْنَاءُ رَاجِعًا إِلَيْهِمَا Ibn ‘Atiyyah says: “What becomes apparent to me in regards to the ruling derived from the words of this verse is that women are commanded to not reveal themselves and that they try their best to conceal all that is considered to be adornment (beauty). The exception made here is due to certain movements that are absolutely necessary (for women to do) or in order to fix something, etc. As such, “that which appears thereof” in this context refers to revealing at times of necessity for women; therefore, it is amongst those things that are forgiven (due to a need).” According to me [referring to Imam al-Qurtubī himself], this is a better approach, except that since the face and hands become revealed habitually or at times of ībādah…it is better to say that the exception refers to those two times
(only).24 There are some who mention that revealing the face is permissible for women if there is no fear of fitnah[25]. In regards to this, Imam Jalāluddīn al-Mahallī mentions in his Tafsīr al-Jalālayn:{وَلَا يُبْدِينَ}…{زِينَتهنَّ إلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} وَهُوَ الْوَجْه وَالْكَفَّانِ فَيَجُوز نَظَره لِأَجْنَبِيٍّ إنْ لَمْ يَخَفْ فِتْنَة فِي أَحَد وَجْهَيْنِ وَالثَّانِي يَحْرُم لِأَنَّهُ مَظِنَّة الْفِتْنَة وَرُجِّحَ حَسْمًا لِلْبَابِ[The verse says] “And they must not expose”…”their adornment, except that which appears thereof”. This refers to the face and the hands; therefore it should be permissible for one to look at a woman (i.e. her face) if he does not feel there will be fitnah. This is according to one opinion; the other opinion is that such an act is harām since there is a possibility of fitnah. This (second) opinion has been given preference in order to close the doors (leading to fitnah).[26]Mufti Shafī’ comments on this as well in the following words:و أنت خبير بأن هذا أمر يعز وجوده في القرون الأولي أيضا إلا ما شاء الله تعالي، ويشهد له قصة الفضل ابن عباس مع امرأة خثعمية بأن النبي صلي الله عليه و سلم حول وجه الفضل عنها، و قال: رأيت شابا و شابة فلم آمن عليهما الفتنة، كما رواه البخاري والترمذي، فما ظنك بزماننا الذي بدا فيه التساوي بين المحاسن والمساوي، وكادت القلوب أن تكون منكوسة فلاتعرف معروفا و لا تنكر منكرا، و عادت الفواحش فيه مفخرا، واتخذت المناهي متجرا؛ تجارت بهم الأهواء كما تتجار الكلب بصاحبه، و يخبط بهم الهوي في مذاهبه وغياهبه؟ فكيف يحصل الأمن واليقين علي أنه لا يحدث في نفسه الميلان إلي قربها بالنظر إليها؟ You already know that such a thing (not having fear of fitnah) was seldom found during the first era of Muslims as well (i.e. the time of the Holy Prophet sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and his Sahabah radiyallahu ‘anhum) except that which Allah Ta’ālā wanted. The story of Fadl ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallahu ‘anhu) and the woman of Khath’amiyyah attests to this fact since the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) turned the face of Fadl away from her (when he saw them staring at each other) as he told them: “I saw a young man and a young woman and I did not feel secure from fitnah arising between them.” As narrated by Imam Bukhārī and Imam Tirmidhī. [Considering this] what do you think is the situation in our times where good and evil have been labeled as equal, the hearts (of people) have turned upside down to the extent that they cannot even differentiate between wrong from right, where indecency (i.e. adultery, prostitution, etc.) has returned as a means to boast one’s own ego, where forbidden acts have become a business? A time where selfish desires travel with people like a dog travels with his partner? Where wishes and fancies have plunged people into its depths and its darkness. So how can one feel secure and certain that one’s heart will not be inclined towards her (i.e. towards committing indecency with her) when one’s eyes are focused on her?27 All four schools of thought (i.e. Mālikī, Hanbalī, Shafi’ī, and Hanafī) agree that it is impermissible for women to expose their face in front of non-mahram men[28].After discussing the points above, the conclusion the we arrive at is that although there is a difference of opinion regarding the tafsīr of verse thirty one of Surah an-Nūr, there remains no discrepancy in regards to the ruling derived therefrom. That is to say that even though there are authentic narrations concerning the meaning of “except that which appears thereof”, there still remains no disagreement pertaining to the application of the verse according to the vast majority of the fuqahā, especially in reference to our time where fitnah lurks at every corner; therefore, it is not feasible for women to leave their homes with their faces uncovered in front of non-mahram men.The core of this discussion boils down to the fact that the third degree of hijāb no longer remains an issue, whether it is because one opts for Ibn Masūd’s (radiyallahu ‘anhu) tafsīr of the verse which states that “except that which appears thereof” simply refers to women’s outer garments and ornaments, or because the revealing of one’s face in our times can lead to fitnah, and in order to close this door completely, the ruling of impermissibility was given preference.[29] The Field of AhkāmBefore we conclude this discussion, we would like to make one final point. The saying goes “to each his own”, but does this apply to the laws of Shari’ah? Like any other field, Islamic sciences have also been divided into different categories each with their own specialists. The muhaddithūn are tasked with preserving the words and asānīd (chains of narration) of ahādīth for later generations, whereas the mufassirūn discuss the meanings, interpretations, and explanations of the verses in the Holy Qurān. Similarly, the fuqahā are those who spent a great portion of their lives deducing rulings from the Holy Qurān and the Ahādīth of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). One may say that each field is also linked to the other in one way or another.The point of consideration is that simply because one is a master in one field it does not necessitate that he is a master in another. If one holds a PhD in mechanical engineering, it does not mean that he has the knowledge to perform a surgery on a patient requiring a bypass. This also goes for one who has studied immensely on his own but does not hold the credentials needed to assert his authority in front of those who hold valid credentials in that field. For example, if one studies hundreds of books on the subject of medicine, keeps up with WebMD every day, and further reads every article regarding medicine for fifteen years, he still does not hold the credentials that a student of medicine would hold that only studied for a mere seven to eight years. The reason being is that certain sciences require certain procedures and experience under direct supervision of an authority in order to be labelled as a master in that field.To substantiate this point, consider the words of Imam Tirmidhī, a great and renowned muhaddith, regarding the status of the fuqaha:وَهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَعَانِي الحَدِيثِ And they (the fuqahā) have more knowledge of the meanings of the ahādīth.[30]To conclude, while there may be some who attempt to interpret the meanings of the Qurān and ahādīth in their own way, the rulings derived therefrom will not be taken into consideration unless uttered by the fuqahā themselves. The reason is very simple, the fuqahā are masters in the field of deduction and have written thousands and thousands of books on various subjects of ahkām. Furthermore, such a claim is not something new; rather, the chain of fuqahā and their mastery in this field can be traced back to the first century of Islam. Their words have always been accepted as the final judgment in all matters of fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) for over one thousand years. Simply being god fearing and a firm believer of the Quran does not mean one cannot err, especially when one’s opinion is weighed against a thousand years of study backed by thousands of scholars from the four accepted schools of thought. Such an opinion in the end contradicts ijmā’ (consensus) and holds no weight in the sciences of fiqh and deduction.The fact of the matter is that although one may have done great and outstanding work in a certain field and attained a high status in the eyes of the public, it does not necessitate that he has the credentials to make decisions regarding other fields of Islam.May Allah Ta’ālā accept the efforts of all those who defend Islam and may He continue to take work from them. Ameen.And Allah Ta’āla Knows BestBilal MohammadStudent Darul Iftaa
New Jersey, USAChecked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.www.daruliftaa.net

[1] Al-Quran, Al-Isrā, 32
[2] Al-Quran, An-Nūr, 31
[3] Sahīh Muslim, Book of al-Qadr (Fate), vol. 4, pg. 2047, Dar Ihyā at-Turāth
[4] Sahih Muslim, 2128, The Book of Clothes and Adornment
[5] Ma’ariful Quran, ” The Difference Between the Injunctions of Satr-ul-‘Awrah and Veiling of Women (Hijab)”, Surah al-Ahzab:53
[6] فَلَمَّا ذَاقَا الشَّجَرَةَ بَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِنْ وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ(سورة الأعراف، ٢٢)
[7] Al-Quran, Surah al-Qasas:25
[8] Ibid.;Ahkām al-Quran by Mufti Shafī’ ‘Uthmānī, vol. 3, pg. 404-406, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[9] Ma’ariful Quran, “The Second Issue – the Hijab of Women”, Surah al-Ahzab:53;Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 408, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[10] Surah al-Ahzab:33
[11] Ma’ariful Quran, “The First Degree of Hijab from People by Virtue of Staying Home”, Surah al-Ahzab:53; الأولي من سورة الأحزاب هذه الآية أعني قوله تعالي: و إذا سألتموهن متاعا فاسألوهن من وراء حجاب، و هي أول آية نزلت في الحجاب…و هذه الآية تدل علي أن كيفية الحجاب الشرعي هو التستر بالبيوت والخدور بحيث لا ينكشف للرجال شيء من أبدانهن و زينتهن…(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٠٨، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)؛ الأولي: حجاب الأشخاص بالبيوت والجدر والخدور والهوادج و أمثالها، بحيث لا يري الرجال الأجانب شيئا من أشخاصهن و لا لباسهن و زينتهن الظاهرة و لا الباطنة، و لا شيئا من جسدهن من الوجه والكفين و سائر البدن(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٤، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)؛ (فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ) يقول: من وراء ستر بينكم وبينهن، ولا تدخلوا عليهن بيوتهن (ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّ) يقول تعالى ذكره: سؤالكم إياهن المتاع إذا سألتموهن ذلك من وراء حجاب أطهر لقلوبكم وقلوبهن من عوارض العين فيها التي تعرض في صدور الرجال من أمر النساء، وفي صدور النساء من أمر الرجال، وأحرى من أن لا يكون للشيطان عليكم وعليهن سبيل.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٢، ص ٣٩، دار الفكر)
[12] الثاني: أمرهن بملازمة البيوت. وهو أمر مطلوب من سائر النساء…و قد يحرم عليهن الخروج…وما يجوز من الخروج كالخروج للحج و زيارة الوالدين و عيادة المرضي و تعزية الأموات من الأقارب…وقال ابن كثير: و قرن في بيوتكن، أي الزمن بيوتكن فلا تخرجن بغير حاجة.(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٠٨، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[13] Sunan at-Tirmidhi, 1173, The Book of Suckling
[14] وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا.مَعْنَى هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ الْأَمْرُ بِلُزُومِ الْبَيْتِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ الْخِطَابُ لِنِسَاءِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَدْ دَخَلَ غَيْرُهُنَّ فِيهِ بِالْمَعْنَى. هَذَا لَوْ لَمْ يَرِدْ دَلِيلٌ يَخُصُّ جَمِيعَ النِّسَاءِ، كَيْفَ وَالشَّرِيعَةُ طَافِحَةٌ بِلُزُومِ النِّسَاءِ بُيُوتَهَنَّ، وَالِانْكِفَافِ عَنِ الْخُرُوجِ مِنْهَا إِلَّا لِضَرُورَةٍ، عَلَى مَا تَقَدَّمَ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعٍ(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٤٨١، دار الحديث) وَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُوهُنَّ مَتَاعًا فَاسْأَلُوهُنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ ذَلِكُمْ أَطْهَرُ لِقُلُوبِكُمْ وَقُلُوبِهِنَّالتَّاسِعَةُ- فِي هَذِهِ الْآيَةِ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى أَذِنَ فِي مَسْأَلَتِهِنَّ مِنْ وَرَاءِ حِجَابٍ، فِي حَاجَةٍ تَعْرِضُ، أَوْ مَسْأَلَةٍ يُسْتَفْتَيْنَ فِيهَا، وَيَدْخُلُ فِي ذَلِكَ جَمِيعُ النِّسَاءِ بِالْمَعْنَى، وَبِمَا تَضَمَّنَتْهُ أُصُولُ الشَّرِيعَةِ مِنْ أَنَّ الْمَرْأَةَ كُلُّهَا عَوْرَةٌ، بَدَنُهَا وَصَوْتُهَا، كَمَا تَقَدَّمَ، فَلَا يَجُوزُ كَشْفُ ذَلِكَ إِلَّا لِحَاجَةٍ كَالشَّهَادَةِ عَلَيْهَا، أَوْ دَاءٍ يَكُونُ بِبَدَنِهَا، أَوْ سُؤَالِهَا عَمَّا يَعْرِضُ وَتَعَيَّنَ عندها.((الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٥٢٠، دار الحديث)
[15]الثالثة- قوله تعالى: (مِنْ جَلَابِيبِهِنَّ) الْجَلَابِيبُ جَمْعُ جِلْبَابٍ، وَهُوَ ثَوْبٌ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْخِمَارِ. وَرُوِيَ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ أَنَّهُ الرِّدَاءُ. وَقَدْ قِيلَ: إِنَّهُ الْقِنَاعُ. وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ الثَّوْبُ الَّذِي يَسْتُرُ جَمِيعَ الْبَدَنِ.(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٧، ص ٣٥٢، دار الحديث)
[16] Ibid.
[17] ثم اختلف أهل التأويل في صفة الإدناء الذي أمرهن الله به فقال بعضهم: هو أن يغطين وجوههن ورءوسهن فلا يبدين منهن إلا عينا واحدة.* ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثني عليّ، قال: ثنا أَبو صالح قال ثني معاوية عن علي عن ابن عباس، قوله (يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لأزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلابِيبِهِنَّ) أمر الله نساء المؤمنين إذا خرجن من بيوتهن في حاجة أن يغطين وجوههن من فوق رءوسهن بالجلابيب ويبدين عينا واحدة.* ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثني محمد بن سعد قال ثني أَبي قال ثني عمي قال: ثني أَبي عن أبيه عن ابن عباس، قوله (يَاأَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُلْ لأزْوَاجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَاءِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ جَلابِيبِهِنَّ … ) إلى قوله (وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا) قال: كانت الحرة تلبس لباس الأمة فأمر الله نساء المؤمنين أن يدنين عليهن من جلابيبهن. وإدناء الجلباب: أن تقنع وتشد على جبينها.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٢، ص ٤٦، دار الفكر)؛الثانية: الحجاب بالبراقع والجلابيب بحيث لايبدو شيء من الوجه والكفين و سائر الجسد و لباس الزينة، فلايري إلا أشخاصهن مستورة من فوق الرأس إلي القدم(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٣، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[18] Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān of Imam al-Qurtubī, vol. 7, pg. 532, Darul Hadīth
[19] الثالثة: الحجاب بالجلابيب وأمثالها مع كشف الوجه والكفين والقدمين(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٥٤، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[20] وقوله: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ) يقول تعالى ذكره: ولا يُظهرن للناس الذين ليسوا لهن بمحرم زينتهنّ، وهما زينتان: إحداهما: ما خفي وذلك كالخلخال والسوارين والقرطين والقلائد،والأخرى: ما ظهر منها، وذلك مختلف في المعنيّ منه بهذه الآية، فكان بعضهم يقول: زينة الثياب الظاهرة.ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا هارون بن المغيرة، عن الحجاج، عن أبي إسحاق، عن أبي الأحوص، عن ابن مسعود، قال: الزينة زينتان: فالظاهرة منها الثياب، وما خفي: الخَلْخَالان والقرطان والسواران…وقال آخرون: الظاهر من الزينة التي أبيح لها أن تبديه: الكحل، والخاتم، والسواران، والوجه.ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا مروان، قال: ثنا مسلم الملائي، عن سعيد بن جُبير، عن ابن عباس: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال: الكحل والخاتم….حدثنا ابن بشار، قال: ثنا أبو عاصم، قال: ثنا سفيان، عن عبد الله بن مسلم بن هرمز، عن سعيد بن جُبير، في قوله: (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال: الوجه والكفّ….وقال آخرون: عنى به الوجه والثياب.*ذكر من قال ذلك: حدثنا ابن عبد الأعلى، قال: ثنا المعتمر، قال: قال يونس (وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا) قال الحسن: الوجه والثياب.(جامع البيان للطبري، ج ١٠، ١١٧-١١٩، دار الفكر)
[21] الثَّالِثَةُ- أَمَرَ اللَّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى النِّسَاءَ بِأَلَّا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ لِلنَّاظِرِينَ، إِلَّا مَا اسْتَثْنَاهُ مِنَ النَّاظِرِينَ فِي بَاقِي الْآيَةِ حِذَارًا مِنْ الِافْتِتَانِ، ثُمَّ اسْتَثْنَى، مَا يَظْهَرُ مِنَ الزِّينَةِ، وَاخْتَلَفَ النَّاسُ فِي قَدْرِ ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: ظَاهِرُ الزِّينَةِ هُوَ الثِّيَابُ. وَزَادَ ابْنُ جُبَيْرٍ الْوَجْهُ. وَقَالَ سَعِيدُ بْنُ جُبَيْرٍ أَيْضًا وَعَطَاءٌ وَالْأَوْزَاعِيُّ: الْوَجْهُ وَالْكَفَّانِ وَالثِّيَابُ. وَقَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ وَقَتَادَةُ وَالْمِسْوَرُ بْنُ مَخْرَمَةَ: ظَاهِرُ الزِّينَةِ هُوَ الْكُحْلُ وَالسِّوَارُ وَالْخِضَابُ إِلَى نِصْفِ الذِّرَاعِ «1» وَالْقِرَطَةُ وَالْفَتَخُ «2»، وَنَحْوُ هَذَا فَمُبَاحٌ أَنْ تُبْدِيَهُ الْمَرْأَةُ لِكُلِّ مَنْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهَا مِنَ النَّاسِ.(الجامع لأحكام القرآن للقرطبي، ج ٦، ص ٥١٨، دار الحديث)
[22] وَقَالَ (4) : {وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} أَيْ: لَا يُظهرْنَ شَيْئًا مِنَ الزِّينَةِ لِلْأَجَانِبِ، إِلَّا مَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ.وَقَالَ ابْنُ مَسْعُودٍ: كَالرِّدَاءِ وَالثِّيَابِ. يَعْنِي: عَلَى مَا كَانَ يَتَعَانَاهُ نِسَاءُ الْعَرَبِ، مِنَ المِقْنعة الَّتِي تُجَلِّل ثِيَابَهَا، وَمَا يَبْدُو مِنْ أَسَافِلِ الثِّيَابِ فَلَا حَرَجَ عَلَيْهَا فِيهِ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ. وَنَظِيرُهُ فِي زِيِّ النِّسَاءِ مَا يَظْهَرُ مِنْ إِزَارِهَا، وَمَا لَا يُمْكِنُ إِخْفَاؤُهُ. وَقَالَ بِقَوْلِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ: الْحَسَنُ، وَابْنُ سِيرِينَ، وَأَبُو الْجَوْزَاءِ، وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ النَّخَعي، وَغَيْرُهُمْ. وَقَالَ الْأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ جُبَير، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ: {وَلا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا} قَالَ: وَجْهُهَا وَكَفَّيْهَا وَالْخَاتَمُ(تفسير ابن كثير، ج ٣، ص ٣٤٨، دار الحديث)
[23] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 426, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[24] Al-Jāmi’ li Ahkām al-Qurān of Imam al-Qurtubī, vol. 7, pg. 519, Darul Hadīth
[25] وأما الدرجة الثالثة: اأني خروجهن مستورة الأبدان من الرأس إلي القدم مع كشف الوجه والكفين بشرط الأمن من الفتنة…فاختلف فيه كلمات القوم، منهم من رخص فيها بشرط الأمن من الفتنة، و منهم من لم يرخص فيها إلا عند الاضطرار(أحكام القرآن للمفتي محمد شفيع، ج ٣، ص ٤٦٠، إذارة القرآن و العلوم الإسلامية)
[26] Tafsīr al-Jalālayn, Surah an-Nūr, verse 31
[27] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 467, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[28] Although the Hanafī position seems to have some room for discussion, in our times the final position holds to be the same as the other three schools of thought. For a detailed discussion on this matter, refer to the following link:http://www.deoband.org/2009/04/fiqh/miscellaneous/the-niqab-and-its-obligation-in-the-hanafi-madhhab/ For information regarding the position of the other three madhāhib, refer to:Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 460-467, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah Also see:Ma’ariful Quran, ” The Third Degree of Islamic Legal Hijab About Which Jurists Differ “, Surah al-Ahzab:53
[29] Ahkām al-Qurān by Mufti Muhammad Shafī’ ‘Uthmanī, vol. 3, pg. 469, Idarah al-Quran w’al-‘Ulūm al-Islamiyyah
[30] Sunan at-Tirmidhī, 990, The Book Janāiz (Funerals)